Working Papers

#2017-03 Darah Gibson and U. Rashid Sumaila. How Small-Scale Are Fisheries in British Columbia? OceanCanada Working Paper #2017-03, (Full text)
#2017-02 Travis C. Tai, Tim Cashion, Vicky W. Y. Lam, Wilf Swartz and U. Rashid Sumaila. Ex-vessel fish price database: disaggregating prices for low-priced species from reduction fisheries. OceanCanada Working Paper #2017-02, (Full text)


#2015-102 Pajaro, MG, Vincent ACJ. 2015. The catch and export of the seahorse trade in the Philippines, pre-CITES. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-102, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 33 p. (Full text)
#2015-98 Cisneros-Montemayor, Andrés M., Gordon R. Munro, Enrique Sanjurjo, Victor Hernández-Trejo, and Rashid U. Sumaila. 2015. Strategies And Rationale For Restructuring Fishery Subsidies. Fisheries Centre Working Paper University of British Columbia, Vancouver
Abstract: Subsidies can directly support unsustainable fishing practices that harm both ecosystems and long-term social and economic benefits. Globally, fishery subsidies total around US$27 billion, yet their impacts on fishing dynamics are specific to given regions or particular fisheries at local scales. For example, fishery subsidies within a nation have markedly different effects when applied to artisanal versus industrial, or managed versus open-access conditions. A range of subsidy reform strategies are critically assessed, drawing on a review of over 30 case studies worldwide to determine patterns in their usefulness and necessary conditions for implementation. Strategies with best relative results are explicitly reorienting subsidies away from capacity-enhancement, and/or conditioning them on specific sustainable performance metrics. Decoupling subsidies from fishing (e.g. providing direct aid to fishers) has unpredictable and unclear results, whereas buyback programs have mostly, and sometimes significantly, poor outcomes. Eliminating subsidies is perhaps the simplest strategy, but is also the most difficult to implement from a social and political perspective. There are clear patterns for effective and beneficial subsidy reform strategies, though key factors for any policy to succeed are clear short- and long-term goals; creative design; transparent implementation; and strong socio-political will.
#2015-97 Cisneros-Montemayor, Andrés M., and Amanda J. Vincent. 2015. Make Haste, But Avoid Rush, To Save Flagship Species: A Case Study From The Gulf Of California. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-97, University of British Columbia, Vancouver
#2015-90 Funes, M., K. Zylich, E. Divovich, D. Zeller, A. Lindop, D. Pauly and S. Box. 2015. Honduras, a fish exporting country: Preliminary reconstructed marine catches in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Fonseca, 1950 – 2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-90, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 16 p. (Full text)
#2015-89 Khalfallah, M., K. Zylich, D. Zeller and D. Pauly. 2015. Reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for Oman (1950-2010). Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-89, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 11 p. (Full text)
#2015-87 Simmons, G., G. Bremner, C. Stringer, B. Torkington, L.C.L. Teh, K. Zylich, D. Zeller, D. Pauly and H. Whittaker. 2015. Reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for New Zealand (1950-2010). Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-87, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 33 p. (Full text)
#2015-86 Ulman, A., V. Shlyakhov, S. Jatsenko and D. Pauly. 2015. A reconstruction of the Ukraine’s marine fisheries catches, 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-86, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 23 p.
#2015-85 Mahmoud, H., L.C.L. Teh, M. Khalfallah and D. Pauly. 2015. Reconstruction of marine fisheries statistics in the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea, 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-85, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 16 p. (Full text)
#2015-84 Divovich, E., B. Jovanović, K. Zylich, S. Harper, D. Zeller and D. Pauly. 2015. Caviar and politics: A reconstruction of Russia’s marine fisheries in the Black Sea and Sea of Azov from 1950 to 2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-84, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 24 p. (Full text)
#2015-82 Doherty, B., D. Gibson, Y. Zhai, A. McCrea-Strub, K. Zylich, D. Zeller and D. Pauly. 2015. Reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for Subarctic Alaska, 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-82, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 34 p. (Full text)
#2015-80 Ulman, A., A. Saad, K. Zylich, D. Pauly and D. Zeller. 2015. Reconstruction of Syria’s fisheries catches from 1950-2010: Signs of overexploitation. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-80, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 26 p.
#2015-77 Hornby, C., B. Bhathal, D. Pauly and D. Zeller. 2015. Reconstruction of India’s marine fish catch from 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-77, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 42 p. (Full text)
#2015-75 Hornby, C., M. Arun Kumar, B. Bhathal, D. Pauly and D. Zeller. 2015. Reconstruction of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands marine fish catch from 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-75, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 27 p. (Full text)
#2015-74 Seto, K., D. Belhabib, D. Copeland, M. Vakily, H. Seilert, S. Sankoh, A. Baio, I. Turay, S. Harper, D. Zeller, K. Zylich and D. Pauly. 2015. Colonialism, conflict, and fish: a reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for Sierra Leone, 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-74, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 23 p. (Full text)
#2015-72 Belhabib, D. and D. Pauly. 2015. Fisheries in troubled waters: a catch reconstruction for Guinea-Bissau, 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-72, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 21 p. (Full text)
#2015-71 Belhabib, D., D. Hellebrandt, E.H. Allison and D. Pauly. 2015. Equatorial Guinea: a catch reconstruction (1950-2010). Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-71, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 24 p. (Full text)
#2015-70 Belhabib, D., V. Koutob, D. Zeller and D. Pauly. 2015. The marine fisheries of Togo, the ‘Heart of West Africa’, 1950 to 2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-70, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 28 p. (Full text)
#2015-68 Etim, L., D. Belhabib and D. Pauly. 2015. An overview of the Nigerian marine fisheries subsector and a re-evaluation of its catch data over the past 60 years (1950-2010). Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-68, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 16 p. (Full text)
#2015-66 Belhabib, D. and D. Pauly. 2015. Côte d‘Ivoire fisheries catch reconstruction, 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-66, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 33 p. (Full text)
#2015-65 Belhabib, D., N.E. Willemse and D. Pauly. 2015. A fishery tale: Namibian fisheries between 1950 and 2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-65, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 17 p. (Full text)
#2015-61 Budimartono, V., M. Badrudin, E. Divovich and D. Pauly. 2015. A reconstruction of marine fisheries catches of Indonesia, with emphasis on Central and Eastern Indonesia, 1950 – 2010. pp. 2-26 In: D. Pauly and V. Budimartono (eds.) Marine Fisheries Catches of Western, Central and Eastern Indonesia, 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-61, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. (Full text)
#2015-60 Coll, M., M. Carreras, M.J. Cornax, E. Massuti, E. Morote, X. Pastor, A. Quetglas, R. Sáez, I. Silva, I. Sobrino, M. Torres, S. Tudela, S. Harper, D. Zeller and D. Pauly. 2015. An estimate of the total catch in the Spanish Mediterranean Sea and gulf of Cadiz regions (1950-2010). Fisheries Centre Working Paper, #2015-60, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 52 p. (Full text)
#2015-59 Jovanović, B., E. Divovich, S. Harper, D. Zeller and D. Pauly. 2015. Estimates of total Russian fisheries catches in the Barents Sea region (FAO 27 subarea I) between 1950 and 2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-59, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 16 p. (Full text)
#2015-57 Khalfallah, M., D. Zeller and D. Pauly. 2015. Reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for Fujairah (UAE) (1950-2010). Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-57, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 13 p. (Full text)
#2015-56 Divovich, E., D. Belhabib, D. Zeller and D. Pauly. 2015. Eastern Canada, “a fishery with no clean hands”: Marine fisheries catch reconstruction from 1950 to 2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-56, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 37 p. (Full text)
#2015-52 Shon, S., J.M. Delgado, T. Morato, C.K. Pham, K. Zylich, D. Zeller and D. Pauly. 2015. Reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for Madeira Island, Portugal, from 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-52, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 13 p. (Full text)
#2015-51 Villasante, S., G. Macho, J. Giráldez, S. Rivero Rodriguez, J. Isusu de Rivero, S. Harper, D. Zeller and D. Pauly. 2015. Estimates of total fisheries removals from the Northwest of Spain (1950-2010). Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-51, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 21 p. (Full text)
#2015-50 Villasante, S., G. Macho, J. Isusu de Rivero, E. Divovich, K. Zylich, S. Harper, D. Zeller and D. Pauly. 2015. Reconstruction of Argentina’s marine fisheries catches (1950-2010). Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-50, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 16 p. (Full text)
#2015-48 Bӑnaru, D., F. Le Manach, L. Färber, K. Zylich and D. Pauly. 2015. From bluefin tuna to gobies: a reconstruction of the fisheries catch statistics in Romania, 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-48, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 10 p. (Full text)
#2015-47 Khalfallah, M., D. Belhabib, D. Zeller and D. Pauly. 2015. Reconstruction of Marine Fisheries catches for Libya (1950-2010). Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-47, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 15 p. (Full text)
#2015-43 Khalfallah, M., M. Dimech, A. Ulman, D. Zeller and D. Pauly. 2015. Reconstruction of Marine Fisheries catches for the Republic of Malta (1950- 2010). Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-43, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 12 p. (Full text)
#2015-37 Bultel, E., D. Gascuel, F. Le Manach, D. Pauly and K. Zylich. 2015. Catch reconstruction for the French Atlantic coasts 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-37, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 20 p. (Full text)
#2015-33 Le Manach, F. and D. Pauly. 2015. Update of the fisheries catch reconstruction of Corsica (France), 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-33, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 5 p. (Full text)
#2015-30 Divovich, E. and D. Pauly. 2015. Oceanic islands of Brazil: Out on a limb, Catch reconstruction from 1950 to 2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-30, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 22 p. (Full text now available as FCRR)
#2015-29 Cinco, E.A., K. Zylich, L.C.L. Teh and D. Pauly. 2015. The marine and estuarine fisheries of Brunei Darussalam, 1950 to 2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-29, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 16 p. (Full text)
#2015-28 Pauly, D. and F. Le Manach. 2015. Tentative adjustments of China’s marine fisheries catches (1950-2010). Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-28, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 16 p. (Full text)
#2015-22 Cisneros-Montemayor, A.M., M.A. Cisneros-Mata, S. Harper and D. Pauly. 2015. Unreported Marine Fisheries Catch in Mexico, 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-22, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 9 p. (Full text)
#2015-20 Keskin, C, A. Ulman, V. Raykov, G.M. Daskalov, K. Zylich, D. Pauly and D. Zeller. 2015. Reconstruction of Fisheries Catches for Bulgaria: 1950- 2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-20, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 18 p. (Full text)
#2015-19 Carreras, M., M. Coll, A. Quetglas, R. Goñi, X. Pastor, M.J. Cornax, M. Iglesias, E. Massutí, P. Oliver, R. Aguilar and D. Pauly. 2015. Estimates of total fisheries removal for the Balearic Islands (1950-2010). Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-19, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 45 p. (Full text)
#2015-13 Georges, Jeanel, Robin Ramdeen, Kyrstn Zylich, and Dirk Zeller. 2015. Reconstruction of total marine fisheries catch for Antigua and Barbuda (1950-2010). Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver
Abstract: Antigua & Barbuda are islands located in the Caribbean Sea. Most of the fishing in these islands is done for local consumption and is important for food security. Antigua & Barbuda’s fishery sector contributes approximately 1.5% to the country’s GDP and is of economic importance especially during slow periods of tourism, the country’s principle economic sector. The fisheries of these islands are small-scale, targeting primarily reef and demersal species and consists of three main sectors: artisanal, subsistence and recreational. The accuracy and comprehensiveness of statistical data on fisheries landings between the 1950s and 1990 has been subject to practical limitations of data collection and of some historical fisheries records as a result of Hurricane damage. Accurate catch data are fundamental for effective scientific analysis on the state of fisheries stocks. Therefore, a review of all available fisheries literature on Antigua & Barbuda was undertaken in order to provide an improved estimate of total marine fisheries catches for the islands. Antigua & Barbuda’s total reconstructed fisheries catches for the period 1950-2010 were estimated to be almost 138,900 t, which is 67% higher than the reported landings of 83,374 t as presented by the FAO on behalf of Antigua & Barbuda. The reconstructed catches presented in this report should be considered minimum estimates as there were several data limitations.
#2015-12 Moutopoulos, D.K., B. Bradshaw and D. Pauly. 2015. Reconstruction of Albania fishery catches by fishing gear (1950-2010). Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-12, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 12 p. (Full text)
Abstract: A reconstruction of the marine fisheries catch of Albania, from 1950 to 2010 is presented, consisting on the careful evaluation of the official landing statistics reported by Albania to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the U.N. (FAO), complemented by estimates of discards, and differentiating between industrial and small-scale gear. The reconstructed catch estimates were about 1,500 t·year-1 in the early 1950s, peaked at 10,000 t·year-1 in the late 1980s, collapsed to early 1950s levels following the establishment of democracy (1991/1992), and are slowly rebuilding, reaching about 4,000 t in 2010. Some shore based observations on illegal driftnet fishing by Albania-flagged vessels are also provided.
#2015-11 Moutopoulos, Dimitrios, Athanassios Tsikliras, and Konstantinos Stergiou. 2015. Reconstruction of Greek fishery catches by fishing gear and area (1950-2010), Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Abstract: In the present study, Greek marine fisheries catches by gear and area were reconstructed for the period 1950-2010. The reconstruction incorporated the marine fisheries catches from: (a) professional motor-vessels, (b) professional rowing vessels, (c) recreational motor-vessels, (d) subsistence and recreational angling, (e) discard estimates derived from all professional fisheries and (f) overseas distant-water fisheries. Among the different fisheries components that are presented herein, subsistence and recreational fisheries have never been accounted for Greek waters before. Results indicate that total reconstructed catches (including discarded catches) within Greek waters accounted for over 9.8 million t for the 1950-2010 time period, which is 57% higher than the 6.2 million t officially reported by Greece for their waters. Greek distant-water catches accounted for over 831,000 t, increasing from just over 150 t·year-1 in 1952 to 42,300 t·year-1 in 1971, before declining substantially to 1,300 t·year-1 by 2010. The results showed that the reconstructed marine catches substantially increased from 1950 to the mid 1990s and then declined for the remaining years. This general pattern can be attributed to: (a) the organization of the Greek fisheries administration since the end of WWII; (b) the establishment of fisheries and oceanographic research; (c) the international (up to the mid-1960s) and European (since 1983) funding of the fishing sector; (d) the first restriction on recreational fisheries through national legislation since 1985; and (e) the international agreements and oil crisis events that influenced distant-water fisheries activities. The reconstruction of the Greek fisheries catches by incorporating both the reported and unreported catches will reduce the uncertainty in the evaluation of the Greek fisheries status and will lead to a more realistic assessment of the Greek fisheries.
#2015-10 Pauly, D., S. Ramdeen and A. Ulman. 2015. Reconstruction of total marine catches for Aruba, Southern Caribbean, 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-10, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 8 p. (Full text)
#2015-10 Nunoo, Francis, Berchie Asiedu, Kofi Amador, Dyhia Belhabib, and Daniel Pauly. 2015. Reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for Ghana, 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-10, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Abstract: Ghana was reputed to be a fishing nation in the past. The collapse of its industrial distant water fleet, mainly induced by the fact that many of the countries where Ghanaian fleets were venturing declared an EEZ in the 1980s, led the industrial fleet to over-exploit fish stocks home. While official data reported to the FAO shows this decline, the contribution of other sectors that are not reported nor monitored to Ghanaians livelihoods is unknown, and thus their impact of fish stocks further overlooked. Herein, we try to grasp an image of the importance of these fisheries by reconstructing unreported segments of Ghanaian fisheries. Total catches were estimated at 20.2 million t between 1950 and 2010 compared to 11.3 million t reported to the FAO. Subsistence catches, notably from the Ghanaian lagoons represented the bulk of unreported catches and seemed to have increased overall, while artisanal and large scale sectors decreased,
#2015-09 Gibson, Darah, Rainer Froese, Bernnd Ueberschaer, Kyrstn Zylich, and Dirk Zeller. 2015. Reconstruction of total marine fisheries catches for Germany in the North Sea (1950-2010). Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: We reconstruct marine fisheries catches for the Federal Republic of Germany within their North Sea Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) equivalent waters from 1950-2010. ICES landings statistics are used as a reported baseline, and then adjusted using information from ICES stock assessment working group reports, national data, and expert knowledge to estimate unreported landings, recreational and subsistence catches and major discards. Brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) contribute the most to unreported landings and discards. Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and European plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) are also important fisheries within the EEZ equivalent waters for the period 1950-2010. The reconstructed total catch of 8.3 million t from 1950-2010 was approximately 59% higher than the EEZ-adjusted baseline reported ICES landings of 5.2 million t. The reconstructed total catch of invertebrates is over 3.8 million t, which is 96% higher than ICES baseline catch which is just over 1.9 million t. The reconstructed catch for all finfish species is over 4.5 million t and is 37% higher than the ICES baseline catch of 3.3 million t. These discrepancies are largely driven by discarded catches that are not accounted for in officially reported (ICES) data, which also form the globally reported data as presented by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Our results demonstrate the importance of comprehensively accounting for and disclosing fisheries data to the public (including discarded catches), and effectively monitoring Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) catches.
#2015-08 Belhabib, Dyhia. 2015. Gabon fisheries between 1950 and 2010: a catch reconstruction, Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Abstract: Fisheries removals from Gabon were reconstructed to include small-scale artisanal, subsistence catches and foreign industrial catches. Total removals from the Gabonese EEZ were estimated at less than 5,000 t in 1950, constituted mostly of small-scale catches, increased gradually to a peak of 242,000 t in 2000 and then decreased to 161,000 t in 2010. Domestic fisheries catches of Gabon were estimated to be 2.5 times the data reported by the FAO on behalf of Gabon; however, under-reporting decreased in the last few years, suggesting improvements in fisheries catch statistics. Artisanal fisheries represented 73% of total domestic removals from the Gabonese EEZ, which highlights the importance of small-scale fisheries to the local economy and domestic food security.
#2015-07 Harper, Sarah, Lou Frotté, Shawn Booth, Liane Veitch, and Dirk Zeller. 2015. Reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for French Guiana from 1950-2010, Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Abstract: Total marine fisheries catches for French Guiana from 1950-2010 were estimated using a method called ‘catch reconstruction’. Our reconstruction of marine fisheries catches included estimates of all domestic fisheries catches. These included the local commercial sector, small-scale fisheries for subsistence, the shrimp fishery (French vessels only) and discarded by-catch from French shrimp trawlers. Foreign fisheries catches in French Guiana’s waters that target shrimp and snapper are also included. Total catches by domestic fisheries in French Guiana were estimated to be approximately 767,000 t over the period 1950-2010, which is 4 times the officially reported landings presented by the FAO on behalf of French Guiana (177,719 t). This large difference is mainly due to discards associated with the domestic shrimp trawl fishery that totaled 555,000 t over the study period. This study illustrates the need for better reporting of fisheries catches in French Guiana as there are currently large amounts of fish being caught and/or discarded that are unaccounted for in the catch statistics.
#2015-06 Belhabib, D., S. Ramdeen and D. Pauly. 2015. An attempt at reconstructing the marine fisheries catches in the Congo (ex-Zaire), 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-06, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 9 p. (Full text now available as FCRR)
Abstract: The catches of the marine fisheries of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly known as Zaïre (here: ‘Congo (ex-Zaïre)’ or ‘DRC’), were estimated, in spite of low availability of quantitative data and pertinent literature. Reconstructed total catches were estimated to be at least twice as much as the data supplied to FAO on behalf of the Congo (ex-Zaïre), with around 764,000 tonnes between 1950 and 2010 compared to 338,000 tonnes reported to the FAO on behalf of the Congo (ex-Zaïre), of which about 70% were taken by the small-scale fisheries. The reconstructed catches illustrate the fact that while political turmoil caused the nascent industrial fisheries to fold, wars and other conflicts contributed to increasing the contribution of small-scale fisheries to total fisheries removals, thus demonstrating the resilience of small-scale fisheries and their crucial role in contributing to the food security of coastal communities.
#2015-05 Belhabib, D. and D. Pauly. 2015. The implications of misreporting on catch trends: a catch reconstruction for the People’s Republic of the Congo, 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-05, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 13 p. (Full text now available as FCRR)
Abstract: The official fisheries statistics for the People’s Republic of the Congo, also known as ‘Congo (Brazzaville)’ feature increasing landings, despite current, if anecdotal evidence of over-exploitation. This reconstruction brings to light that strong under-reporting in the past masked a massive exploitation and thus biased the trends of reported data. Reconstructed total catches from the Congo within its EEZ were on average 2.8 times the data supplied to the FAO. In contrast, reconstructed domestic catches within Congo (Brazzaville)’s EEZ increased from 7,110 t in 1950 to a peak of 99,300 t in 1977, declined to 30,500 t on average during the 1990s and then increased slowly to 45,000 t in 2010. As opposed to official statistics, which may have justified the licensing of an over-capitalized foreign industrial fleet, the reconstructed catch confirms fishers’ accounts of declining catches and resources availability. This situation threatens the livelihoods of the coastal population of the Congo, which faces increasing resource scarcity and poverty.
#2015-04 Belhabib, D. and D. Pauly. 2015. Reconstructing fisheries catches for Cameroon between 1950 and 2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-04, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 8 p. (Full text now available as FCRR)
Abstract: Total catches for Cameroon, West Africa, are reconstructed to include sectors that were unaccounted or not properly accounted for, i.e., parts of the artisanal sector, the subsistence sector, bycatch and discards of the industrial sector, as well as illegal foreign fisheries. Reconstructed catches were estimated at 15,000 t in 1950 (compared to 12,000 t reported by the FAO on behalf of Cameroon), increased to a first peak of 89,300 t in 1977, declined to 61,900 t in 1986, then increased again to reach a peak of 115,000 t in 2003 (FAO: 62,800 t), before declining to 80,100 t in 2010 (around 15,100 t higher than the data supplied to the FAO). Overall, there are two main discrepancies between reconstructed data and the data supplied to the FAO: the former are 40% higher than the latter and the trend of the former is consistent with an over-exploitation status of marine fisheries resources of Cameroon, while the FAO data, which shows a pattern of increasing catches, are not. Artisanal fisheries, and thus fish species that are consumed locally, such as sardinellas and bonga shad make up for most catches. This further denotes the relatively important role fisheries play for food security in Cameroon.
#2015-03 Belhabib, D. and D. Pauly. 2015. Benin fisheries: a catch reconstruction, 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-03, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. p. 13. (Full text now available as FCRR)
Abstract: Total catches for Cameroon, West Africa, are reconstructed to include sectors that were unaccounted or not properly accounted for, i.e., parts of the artisanal sector, the subsistence sector, bycatch and discards of the industrial sector, as well as illegal foreign fisheries. Reconstructed catches were estimated at 15,000 t in 1950 (compared to 12,000 t reported by the FAO on behalf of Cameroon), increased to a first peak of 89,300 t in 1977, declined to
61,900 t in 1986, then increased again to reach a peak of 115,000 t in 2003 (FAO: 62,800 t), before declining to 80,100 t in 2010 (around 15,100 t higher than the data supplied to the FAO). Overall, there are two main discrepancies between reconstructed data and the data supplied to the FAO: the former are 40% higher than the latter and the trend of the former is consistent with an over-exploitation status of marine fisheries resources of Cameroon, while the FAO data, which shows a pattern of increasing catches, are not. Artisanal fisheries, and thus fish species that are consumed locally, such as sardinellas and bonga shad make up for most catches. This further denotes the relatively important role fisheries play for food security in Cameroon.
#2015-02 Kleisner, K.M., C. Brennan, A. Garland, S. Lingard, S. Tracey, P. Sahlqvist, A. Tsolos, D. Pauly and D. Zeller. 2015. Australia: Reconstructing Estimates of Total Fisheries Removals 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-02, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, p. 26 (Full text)
Abstract: Australia’s commercial fisheries are of significant value to the Australian economy, with the twenty Commonwealth fisheries alone worth around AUD$320 million in production value. The fisheries statistics reported by the Australian government to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) typically consist of commercial landings from the national Commonwealth fisheries and the state fisheries. While reporting from this sector is generally robust in terms of accuracy and taxonomic precision, these statistics do not include landings from the recreational or indigenous fisheries. Recreational fishing is a popular pastime for Australians with the most recent National Recreational and Indigenous Fishing Survey (NRIFS) estimating a national participation rate of 19.5% in 2000. Within the coastal areas of Northern Australia, the indigenous communities comprise a significant proportion of the total population. Within these Northern states, a high participation rate in fishing activities was recorded by the NRIFS. Similarly, the indigenous communities of the Torres Strait Islands land a significant quantity of catch. Discards from state and Commonwealth commercial fisheries, which may in some cases be alive, are often in poor condition. Although Australia has relatively strong monitoring of discards and in some cases estimates discard rates, discards are not reported to the FAO. This is due to the fact that FAO data are presented as ‘production’ figures, i.e., landings. However, given the global trend towards ecosystem-based fisheries considerations, total catches (i.e., total removals) should be considered for reporting. This study reconstructs total marine fisheries removals from 1950 to 2010 for the Commonwealth and for each of the state fisheries as well as the territorial islands (Norfolk Island and Heard and MacDonald Islands) and the state islands (Lord Howe Island, Macquarie Island, and the Torres Strait Islands). We find that reported commercial landings match quite closely to the finer scale landings data provided to us by the Commonwealth and the state fisheries departments. However, when we consider total landings from all sectors plus discards, we find that the total removals are 15 million tonnes, which is nearly double the 8.1 million tonnes reported from the commercial sector to the FAO from 1950 to 2010. The most significant source of this difference comes from discards, which were estimated to be 4 million tonnes over this period, with an unestimated fraction that possibly survives after being caught. Total estimated indigenous and recreational catches amount to 2.3 million tonnes (16% of total catches) over this period. Overall, we highlight the need to estimate landings and discards from all fisheries sectors to better quantify total removals from the system to more accurately establish the multiple pressures on marine ecosystems, and thus manage fish sustainably.
#2015-01 Teh, L., D. Zeller and D. Pauly. 2015. Preliminary reconstruction of Thailand’s fisheries catches: 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-01, University of British Columbia: Vancouver. p. 15. (Full text)
Abstract: We present a historical reconstruction of Thailand’s total marine fisheries catches from 1950-2010. National marine fisheries statistics estimate small-scale and industrial fisheries using data collated from logbooks and fishing community surveys, but are incomplete. Sources of under-reporting are: i) illegal fishing by Thai industrial vessels outside the Thai Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ); ii) under-reported small-scale subsistence and artisanal fisheries; iii) fish discards; and iv) catches from marine recreational fishing. We quantify catches from these sources and add them to annual marine landings statistics that are reported to the FAO. Thailand’s reconstructed catch totalled 266 million t from 1950-2010, which was 2.8 times the reported landings of 95 million t. Of total reconstructed catch, 176 million t originated from outside the Thai EEZ, of which approximately 75% was caught by industrial fishing vessels either operating illegally in foreign waters or not properly reporting their catches. This suggests a failure of flag-state control, and indicates that stricter monitoring and enforcement of the Thai industrial fishing fleet should be pursued to mitigate un-controlled fishing effort both in the Thai EEZ and in the EEZs of other countries in the High Seas.

#2014-29 Gryba, Rowenna, Edward J. Gregr, Ruth Joy, and Andrew W. Trites. 2014. Predicted distributions and biomass of walleye pollock, Pacific cod and Atka mackerel within Steller sea lion critical habitat in Alaska Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Abstract: Critical habitat is presumed to protect important feeding areas for designated species such as Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). We sought to assess the relative abundance and distribution of three species of groundfish in Alaska that dominate the diets of Steller sea lions: walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma), Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) and Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius). We began by using Generalized Least Square models to determine relationships between catches of groundfish species and the bathymetry and oceanography of areas sampled during groundfish surveys conducted by the US National Marine Fisheries Service in Alaska. We then used these relationships to predict the distributions and biomass of the three groundfish species within the designated sea lion critical habitat during June and July (2000-2004). We also evaluated whether an alternate critical habitat description for Steller sea lions, based on hypothesized foraging behaviour of sea lions, did a better job of capturing the distribution and abundance of groundfish that sea lions depend upon. We found that the predicted biomass of the prey species within the designated and alternate sea lion critical habitat varied by month and between cold and warm years, particularly in the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska. We also found that more prey biomass occurred within the alternate habitat than within the designated critical habitat in the Bering Sea in most years. However, the opposite was true in the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska where higher biomass occurred within the designated critical habitat. Our findings suggest that the currently designated critical habitat should be refined to incorporate seasonality and the distribution of prey to delineate a more realistic, dynamic, ecosystem-based definition of Steller sea lion critical habitat.
#2014-27 Keskin, Cetin, Aylin Ulman, Davis Iritani, and Dirk Zeller. 2014. Reconstruction of fisheries catches for Montenegro: 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Abstract: The total marine catches made by Montenegrin fisheries between 1950 and 2010 were reconstructed using landings reported for Montenegro by the FAO as a baseline to account for unreported catches made within Montenegro’s Exclusive Economic Zone. Catches were attributed to fisheries sectors (i.e., industrial, artisanal, subsistence, and recreational), by catch type (i.e.,reported landings, unreported landings and discards) and by taxa. The total reconstructed catches between 1950 and 2010 were 2.6 times the officially reported landings.
#2014-26 Matić-Skoko, Sanja, Alen Soldo, Nika Stagličić, Danijela Blažević, Jasna Šiljić, and Davis Iritani. 2014. Croatian marine fisheries (Adriatic Sea): 1950-2010 Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Abstract: We estimated the total Croatian marine fisheries catches from the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea,from 1950-2010. Using the official catch database reported in national statistical yearbooks as the reported data baseline, we added the following unreported catch components: unreported commercial landings, discards, and subsistence and recreational catches. The reconstructed total catch from 1950-2010 was approximately 115% higher than the data officially reported by the Directorate of Fisheries for the same time period. For the 1990-2010 post-Yugoslavia time period, this difference was 137% on average. Our reconstruction is likely an underestimate, as we used minimum values based on conservative assumptions. However, a conservative estimate is still preferable to the current default assumption of zero catch in the absence of officially-reported IUU data.
#2014-25 Gibson, Darah, Bernd Uberschaer, Kyrstn Zylich, and Dirk Zeller. 2014. Preliminary reconstruction of total marine fisheries catches for Denmark in the Kattegat, the Skagerrak and the North Sea (1950-2010) Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Abstract: We reconstruct the total Danish marine fisheries catch within the Kattegat, Skagerrak and North Sea Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) equivalent waters from 1950-2010. We use publically available electronic landings data from the International Council for the Exploration of the Seas (ICES) as a ‘reporting’ baseline for our reconstruction. This baseline is then improved upon using all data accessible to us, including ICES stock assessments, peer-reviewed literature, grey literature and local expert opinions. Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) catches are assessed in the form of unreported catch, over-reported catch, discarded by-catch, as well as recreational and subsistence catches. The reconstructed total catch from 1950-2010 was estimated at 55 million t, which is 1.09 times greater than the reported landings of 50 million t. Sandeels (Ammodytes spp.) comprise the largest amount of reported baseline landings from 1950-2010 due to its importance in the Danish industrial reduction fisheries. The largest contribution to the unreported component is discarded by-catch. Our estimates suggest that whiting (Merlangius merlangus) is the most discarded species over the time series considered. The discrepancy between the reported landed catch and the reconstructed total catch is mostly due to discarded by-catch that is not officially reported by ICES in their public electronic catch database.
#2014-24 Teh, Lydia, Kyrstn Zylich, and Dirk Zeller. 2014. Preliminary reconstruction of Bermuda’s marine fisheries catches, 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Abstract: We reconstruct marine fisheries catches for Bermuda from 1950‐2010 to account for catches that are omitted from official statistics. Annual national landings statistics account for catches from Bermuda’s small‐scale commercial fisheries, whilst catches from recreational fishing, including fish taken for food (essentially subsistence catch), are not enumerated. This reconstruction thus focuses on quantifying catches that are taken domestically for subsistence and recreational purposes. Reconstructed total catch in Bermuda was 54,200 t from 1950‐2010, suggesting that actual catches were around 1.75 times the 30,970 t of domestic catches reported by FAO on behalf of Bermuda for the same time period. Although fisheries play a small part in Bermuda’s economy, the magnitude of recreational and subsistence fishing belies its social and cultural significance. Steps should thus be taken to ensure the future sustainability of local fisheries, including comprehensive coverage of fisheries statistics that are essential for informed decision‐making.
#2014-23 de Freire, Kátia Meirelles Felizola, José Augusto Negreiros Aragão, Ana Rosa Rocha da Araújo, Antônio Olinto Ávila-da-Silva, Maria Camila Santos dos Bispo, Gonzalo Velasco Canziani, Marcus Henrique Carneiro, Fernanda Damaceno Silva Gonçalves, Karina Annes Keunecke, Jocemar Tomasino Mendonça, Pietro S. Moro, Fabio S. Motta, George Olavo, Paulo Ricardo Pezzuto, Raynara Filho, Santana, Roberta Aguiar dos Santos, Roberta Aguiar dos Santos, Isaac Trindade-Santos, José Airton, Vasconcelos, Marcelo Vianna, and Esther Divovich. 2014. Revisiting Brazilian Catch Data for Brazilian Marine Waters (1950-2010). Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Abstract: Catch data are the most basic information to be collected for managing fisheries everywhere. However, in many regions around the globe, including Brazil, this information is not available with satisfactory quality. The objective of the initiative described in this paper was to compile a countrywide database of marine commercial catch data in its original form (only landings) and a reconstructed version (which includes artisanal, industrial, recreational, and subsistence landings, as well as major discards) and to analyze historical trends. The basis for the country-wide database of marine catch statistics compiled here were the national official bulletins published in Brazil for the period 1950 to 2010. They represent an update of previous databases compiled for 1980-2000 and later for 1950-2004. These databases were revised and extended to include the whole period from 1950 to 2010 and all 17 coastal states in Brazil, from Amapá to Rio Grande do Sul. Estimates for recreational and subsistence catches, and discards were added. Our analysis indicates that total catches for Brazil may be almost 2 times the reported baseline determined for Brazil. Besides the previously known low taxonomic resolution of catch statistics in Brazil, taxonomic losses were observed when local data were incorporated into the national bulletins and later in the FAO database (FishStat J). Regional analyses indicate that the highest catches are associated with the southern region, except when there is a peak in the production of sardine. However, this result may be biased as those values may include catches off southeastern region that end up being landed in the south. The same is true for other regions in Brazil. Brazilian sardine and demersal fishes comprise most part of the catches. The present reconstruction may be viewed as preliminary and could be revised by local experts to improve the local database and hence the national and global databases.
#2014-22 Piroddi C., M. Gristina, K. Zylich, A. Ulman, D. Zeller and D. Pauly. 2014. Reconstruction of Italy’s marine fisheries catches (1950-2010). Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2014-22, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 41 p. (Full text)
Abstract: Italian marine fisheries catches were estimated for the 1950-2010 period following a catch-reconstruction approach that looked at all types of fisheries removals: from reported and unreported landings to recreational landings and discards. Using scientific literature, national reports, news media and informal communications with local experts and coast guards we assessed the entire Italian fishery sector. National data sources, which included the Italian Fisheries Statistics (ISTAT and IREPA), were much larger than those reported by the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), particularly in the early time period with better agreement in more recent years. Therefore, for the purposes of the Sea Around Us, we compared the reconstructed data to the FAO reported baseline. The total reconstructed catch for the 1950-2010 time period was estimated to be 2.6 times the data reported by the FAO on behalf of Italy. Results indicated that illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) catches constituted 53.7% of the total reconstructed catch, followed by reported catches (38.9%) and discards (7.4%). Industrial fisheries were dominant, with 79.4% of the reconstructed total removals, followed by the artisanal catch (16.9%), with recreational (2.8%) and subsistence (0.9%) fisheries making minimal contributions. As for trends in annual catches over the time period, apart from recreational landings that actually increased in the past decade, all the other fisheries catches have steadily declined since the mid 1980s. Our study is the first that attempted to estimate total Italian fisheries removals using a holistic approach; these methods are particularly important in areas like the Mediterranean Sea, where the multi-species and multi-gear nature of fisheries make the assessment of single-species fisheries resources and their management difficult.
#2014-21 Mendo, Jaime, and Claudia Wosnitza-Mendo. 2014. Reconstruction of total marine fisheries catches for Peru: 1950-2010 Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to assemble available information and data in order to correct catch statistics between 1950 and 2010, for industrial and artisanal commercial fisheries, as well as noncommercial fisheries for recreation and subsistence in Peru, one of the greatest fishery countries in the world. The catch re‐estimation approach consisted of 7 steps including: identification of existing catch times series, identification of fishing sectors by time period and main gears for different species, unreported catches by species and years, estimation of unreported ’subsistence’ and recreational catch, as well as discards, and finally the reconstruction of the total catches from 1950 to 2010. The main results are that anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) catches dominate the statistics as was already well known. The correction factor for unreported catches for this species reaches well over 30% in the early 1970s. While artisanal catches are low compared to anchoveta catches, they are high compared to other countries and reach over half a million tonnes in recent years. The correction factor for unreported artisanal catches fluctuates between 28 and 40%. The average total correction factor over the 60 years of study is 24% which means an underestimate of catches of about 82 million t.
#2014-20 Shon, Soohyun, Sarah Harper, and Dirk Zeller. 2014. Reconstruction of Marine Fisheries Catches for the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) from 1950-2010 Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Abstract: he Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK or North Korea) is located on the northern portion of the Korean Peninsula. Unlike most coastal countries in the world, North Korea does not report its annual marine fisheries catches to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) although it is a member country of FAO. We independently reconstructed North Korea’s total marine catches within its EEZ for the 1950-2010 time period. The reconstructed catch estimate is the sum of an estimate of subsistence catches based on information on consumption and a re-estimated commercial fisheries catch from the FAO and the South Korean government statistics department. Total reconstructed catches were estimated to be 38.3 million t for the 1950-2010 period, increasing from 0.43 million t∙year-1 in 1950 to a peak of 1.28 million t∙year-1 in 1978, before declining to 0.2 million t∙year-1 by 2010. In comparison, landings data presented by FAO amount to 24.4 million tonnes for the same period, resulting in estimated total catches being 60% larger than presented landings. Since the early 1990s, North Korea has relied heavily on international food aid. Thus, marine resources and fisheries production in North Korean waters are crucial to food security and the economy of the country.
#2014-19 Shon, Soohyun, Sarah Harper, and Dirk Zeller. 2014. Reconstruction of Marine Fisheries Catches for the Republic of Korea (South Korea) from 1950-2010, Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Abstract: The reconstruction of total marine fisheries catches of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) for the 1950-2010 time period added estimates of unreported subsistence, recreational and domestic illegal fisheries catches, and discards to the reported commercial fisheries landings obtained from the national government statistics and supplied to the FAO. Total estimated fisheries catches taken by Korea from the Republic of Korea EEZ were 95.1 million tonnes for the 1950-2010 period, increasing from 0.7 million t∙year-1 in 1950 to a peak of 2.5 million t∙year-1 in 1986, before declining to 1.4 million t∙year-1 by 2010. In comparison, data reported to FAO amount to 58.1 million tonnes, resulting in estimated total catches being 64% larger than those reported. Due to the significance of marine resources to the economy and food security in the Republic of Korea, we hope that fisheries managers and policy makers recognize the need for improved catch recording systems and estimation approaches, especially for growing sectors such as recreational fisheries.
#2014-18 Teh, Lydia, Debbie Shon, Kyrstn Zylich, and Dirk Zeller. 2014. Reconstructing Cambodia’s Marine Fisheries Catch, 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Abstract: We reconstruct marine fisheries catches for Cambodia from 1950-2010. Annual national landings statistics only account for the catches of taxable vessels, resulting in a substantial underestimation of total catches. Sources of unreported catches are i) small-scale fishing sector (artisanal and subsistence); ii) marine catches sold at sea; and iii) fish discards. We quantify catches from these three sources and add them to annual landings statistics that are reported to the FAO. Total reconstructed catch in Cambodia was 4.1 million t from 1950-2010, suggesting that reported landings (1.4 million t) underestimated total catches on average by a factor of 3. This reconstruction did not account for the catch of foreign fishing vessels in the waters of Cambodia, which represent another source of significant fishing pressure. Our result emphasizes the imperative for improved fisheries monitoring and enforcement in Cambodia to facilitate a move to sustainable and comprehensive fisheries management.
#2014-17 Teh, Lydia, Dirk Zeller, Kyrstn Zylich, George Nguyen, and Sarah Harper. 2014. Reconstructing Vietnam’s Marine Fisheries Catch, 1950-2010, Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Abstract: We reconstruct marine fisheries catches for Vietnam from 1950-2010. Annual national landings statistics are considered to be incomplete and underreported. A disorganised small-scale sector and lax licensing policies give rise to illegal and unreported catches. This reconstruction provides a more comprehensive estimate of Vietnam’s marine catches by accounting for these IUU catches. Total reconstructed catch in Vietnam was 79 million t from 1950-2010, suggesting that actual catches were around 75% higher than the 45 million t of catches reported by FAO on behalf of Vietnam. This reconstruction did not account for the catch of foreign fishing vessels in the waters of Vietnam, which represent another source of fishing pressure, and could be significant. Our results suggest that Vietnam’s marine fisheries are in decline, and urgent action to improve fisheries monitoring and enforcement is needed.
#2014-16 Teh, Lydia, and Louise Teh. 2014. Reconstructing the Marine Fisheries Catch of Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak and Sabah, 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Abstract: We reconstructed marine fisheries catches for Peninsular Malaysia and the state of Sarawak from 1950-2010, and incorporated previously reconstructed catches for Sabah. Annual national landings statistics report catches from licensed fishers and fishing vessels only, resulting in underestimation of total catches. Although there are some discrepancies between national data and data presented by the FAO, the two datasets are generally similar and thus it is assumed that the FAO data are an underestimate as well. We identified four sources of unreported catch and added them to the baseline data– i) unlicensed traditional fishers; ii) unlicensed commercial fishing vessels; iii) discards at sea; and iv) marine recreational fishers. Our reconstruction suggests that from 1950-2010, marine catches in Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak were underestimated by factors of 1.8 and 1.6, respectively, and by a factor of 3.3 for Sabah, in relation to the baseline reported data that we had allocated to each. Unlicensed fishing potentially resulted in an additional 25.9 million and 2.4 million tonnes of fish taken from the waters of Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak, respectively, in the period under consideration. Our findings indicate the need for improved understanding and monitoring of unlicensed fishing in Malaysia, which is crucial to facilitate successful ecosystem based fisheries management, and for securing economic benefits and marine ecosystem health in the future.
#2014-15 Ullah, Hadayet, Darah Gibson, Danielle Knip, and Kyrstn Zylich. 2014. Reconstruction of Total Marine Fisheries Catches for Bangladesh: 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Abstract: We reconstructed the marine fisheries catches for Bangladesh in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) from 1950-2010. FAO catch statistics are used as the reported landings baseline and adjusted using information from national reports, independent studies, local experts and grey literature. Adjustments are estimates of illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) catch in the form of under-reported commercial catch, discarded by-catch and subsistence catches. The reconstructed total catch of Bangladesh, including estimates of discards, unreported commercial catch and subsistence catch, increased from just under 225,000 t·year-1 in the 1950s to 867,000 t·year-1 in the 2000s. In contrast, the catch reported by FAO on behalf of Bangladesh increases from 34,000 t·year-1 in the 1950s to almost 470,000 t·year-1 in the 2000s. Overall, the reconstruction is 157% higher than the landings reported by FAO on behalf of Bangladesh. Unreported subsistence catches contribute 45% of the total reconstructed catch. Bombay duck (Harpadon nehereus) is the most important species in the subsistence reconstruction, representing over 12% of the total subsistence catch. Hilsa shad (Tenualosa ilisha) represents 18 % of the total reconstruction and is the greatest single species contribution. The discrepancies between the reported baseline and the reconstructed catch are mostly due to subsistence catches that are unreported to the FAO. Our results demonstrate the importance of monitoring IUU catches for all sectors of national fisheries.
#2014-14 Okey, Thomas A., Andrés Cisneros Montemayor, Roger Pugliese, and Rashid U. Sumaila. 2014. Exploring the Trophodynamic Signatures of Forage Species in the U.S. South Atlantic Bight Ecosystem to Maximize System-Wide Values. Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
#2014-13 Nunoo, F. K. E., B. Asiedu, K. Amado, Dyhia Belhabib, and Daniel Pauly. 2014. Reconstruction of Marine Fisheries Catches for Ghana, 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
#2014-12 Belhabib, Dyhia, and Esther Divovich. 2014. Rich Fisheries and Poor Data: A Catch Reconstruction for Angola, 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
#2014-11 Nader, Manal R., Shadi Indary, and Nazanin Roshan Moniri. 2014. Historical Fisheries Catch Reconstruction for Lebanon (GSA 27), 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Abstract: The artisanal fisheries sector represents the most dominant fishery sector in Lebanon. The current report aims to estimate the total marine fisheries catches of Lebanon for the period of 1950-2010 using available information on artisanal, subsistence, and recreational fisheries, as well as discards in Lebanon. Recent data available for artisanal fisheries was mainly collected from four major ports in North Lebanon by FLOUCA/UOB. Other available resources included ‘local’ FAO data, which differed from the values officially reported by FAO on behalf of Lebanon. Overall, the estimated value of total catches for Lebanese coastal regions from 1950-2010 was over 345,000 t, which is 2.4 times the 141,000 t reported by the FAO on behalf of Lebanon. Our estimated total catch provides a more comprehensive measure of fisheries catches in Lebanese coastal regions, as this value reflects a broad range of sectors such as artisanal, subsistence and recreational, and also includes discard estimates. Ultimately, with better understanding of the level of catches over time in the Mediterranean Sea, better monitoring, reporting and management systems could be established to ensure sustained benefit from marine resources.
#2014-10 Persson, Lo, Alasdair Lindop, Sarah Harper, Kyrstn Zylich, and Dirk Zeller. 2014. Failed State: Reconstruction of Domestic Fisheries Catches in Somalia 1950-2010, Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Abstract: Somalia is a country in north eastern Africa that has suffered a high degree of political and social instability since the collapse of its last national government in 1991. This study reconstructs domestic fisheries catch data between 1950 and 2010, including the industrial, artisanal, subsistence and recreational sectors. We found that the Somali reconstructed total catch was nearly two times the landings reported by the FAO on behalf of Somalia for the time period, most of which is attributed to the reconstructed small-scale sector. Although there is an initial decline in catches after the collapse of government, small-scale catches increase significantly after the mid-1990s, as a result of increased private investment in artisanal fisheries, changes in seafood consumption habits and population displacement to the coast due to the civil war. However, the absence of monitoring and enforcement in Somali waters, coupled with the lack of transparency amongst international monitoring agencies in the Indian Ocean, resulted in a lack of reliable data for the significant level of illegal and semi-illegal foreign fishing activity also taking place in Somalia’s EEZ and therefore it is not included in this study.
#2014-09 Teh, Lydia, Jeff Kinch, Kyrstn Zylich, and Dirk Zeller. 2014.
Reconstructing Papua New Guinea’s Marine Fisheries Catch, 1950-2010, Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
#2014-08 Leitão, F., V. Baptista, K. Erzini, D. Iritani, and D. Zeller. 2014. Reconstruction of mainland Portugal Fisheries catches 1950-2010, Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. (Full text)
Abstract: Fishing activities in mainland Portugal waters represent an important economic activity that supplies the high fish demand of national consumers, ranked high globally with an average annual per capita consumption of approximately 60kg. The Portuguese domestic mainland fisheries are largely concentrated in near-shore waters, with sardine (Sardina pilchardus), horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus Trachurus trachurus), chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), hake (Merluccius merluccius) and octopus accounting for most of the landings. Although there have been studies on unreported catches, by-catch and discarding in different fisheries, this is the first study to provide an overall estimate of the total quantity of catches, including discards from 1950-2010 based on a fishery-by-fishery approach. Furthermore, to make comparative analyses of the catches and discards among the different fisheries, each fishery was assigned to one of the following sectors: industrial (large-scale commercial), artisanal (small-scale commercial), or subsistence and recreational (both small-scale noncommercial). Overall, reconstructed total catches amounted to just under 21.6 million t for 1950-2010, which is slightly more than 2 times the 10,592,310 t of landings officially reported by Portugal for the same time period. The industrial sector (15.4 million t) accounted for nearly 72% of total catches as estimated here, while the artisanal, recreational and subsistence sectors accounted for 6 million t (28%), 58,000 t (0.3%) and 54,000 t (0.3%) of the total catches, respectively. Discards contributed the most to unreported catches, accounting for 7.6 million t of total catches (i.e., 35%), while unreported landings amounted to around 2.9 million t (13%) over the 1950 to 2010 time period considered here.
#2014-07 Zylich K, S. Harper, R. Licanceo, R, Vega, D. Zeller and D. Pauly. 2014. Fishing in Easter Island, a recent history (1950-2010). Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2014-07, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 19 p. (Citation and link)
Abstract: Easter Island (Rapa Nui) is well studied in terms of its archaeology; however, information regarding the history of fishing is extremely limited. Marine resources have likely been exploited from the time the first Polynesians arrived on this remote island. While large pelagics are part of the traditional Rapa Nui diet, inshore fish and invertebrates have also made their way into the diet. Official records of fisheries catches in what is now the Easter Island Province of Chile, which also includes the uninhabited island of Salas y Gómez, are very limited and were available for only some years. Using anecdotal information, historical descriptions and the limited quantitative information available, we reconstructed fisheries catches in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the Easter Island Province over the 1950–2010 time period. Totaling almost 6,000 metric tonnes, legal catches have been increasing rapidly since the late 1970s, but are now stagnating at around 150–200 t·year-1. The main species targeted were Pacific chub (‘nanue’; Kyphosus sandwicensis) and yellowfin tuna (‘kahi’; Thunnus albacares), with spiny lobster (‘ura’; Panulirus pascuensis) being the most important invertebrate species. There are indications of a substantial illegal fishery for large pelagics in the EEZ of the province, estimated at 200–2,000 t·year-1, which may have operated for two decades and may be the cause for the declining artisanal catch of tuna by Rapa Nui fishers. Continued pressure on these geographically remote oceanic and inshore marine species, especially those popular amongst tourists, makes accounting for fisheries catches an even greater priority.
#2014-06 Vali, Sadiq, Kevin Rhodes, Andrea Au, Kyrstn Zylich, Sarah Harper, and Dirk Zeller 2014. Reconstruction of Total Fisheries Catches for the Federated States of Micronesia (1950-2010), Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 22 p. (Full text)
Abstract: The reconstructed total catch of the Federated States of Micronesia for 1950-2010 included estimates of the subsistence and artisanal sectors which are under-represented in the officially reported data. The reconstructed total catch (excluding industrial tuna catches) was almost 608,000 t, with 86% being subsistence and 14% artisanal catches. The reconstructed total catch was 6.7 times the 91,350 t(excluding industrial large pelagics) reported by the FAO on behalf of the FSM for the 1950-2010 period. The report focuses on the importance of FSM’s inshore fisheries, for which very little catch data exist. Large-scale industrial tuna fisheries occurring within the FSM EEZ were not considered in this reconstruction.
#2014-05 Belhabib, D., V. Koutob, N. Lazar, V. Ndiaye, J. Tobey, C. Mathews, V. Lam and D. Pauly 2014. Beyond the unseen: a first collaborative model towards estimating illegal, unreported, and unregulated catches off Senegal. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2014 05, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 22 p. (Full text)
Abstract: The marine waters of Senegal are very productive, and thus fisheries have become important to the economy and food security of local populations in Senegal. Also, Senegalese fisheries resources are exploited by a number of Distant-Water Fleets, both legal (mostly reflagged to Senegal) and illegal. Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fisheries in Senegal, however, have never been formally estimated, nor examined from a historical perspective. Herein, IUU catches along the Senegalese coast between 1999 and 2011 were estimated for the first time at 2.6 million t. Legal catches by the industrial fleets reflagged to Senegal accounted for 1.7 million t between 1999 and 2011, three times the landings reported in the official reports of the Senegalese ‘Départment des Pêches Maritimes’, and are presently stagnating. Illegal fisheries, on the other hand, which totalled an estimated catch of 714,000 t from 1996 to 2011, are steadily increasing. This increasing trend, besides implying a huge loss of potential revenue, threatens the food security of local populations in West Africa, many of them heavily relying on Senegalese seafood as a primary source of animal protein.
#2014-04 Zylich, Kyrstn, Sarah Harper, and Dirk Zeller 2014. Reconstruction of Marine Fisheries Catches for the Republic of Kiribati (1950-2010), Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Abstract: As an isolated and scattered group of islands in the South Pacific, the Republic of Kiribati (hereafter Kiribati) has one of the highest seafood consumption rates in the world. With limited resources and expensive imports due to the difficulties in logistics of transport to and from the islands, the country’s marine resources play a very important role in the subsistence needs of the I-Kiribati people as well as in revenue generation of the country. Upon analysis of the reported data presented by the FAO on behalf of Kiribati (being the only global data source), it was found that there was little transparency in the data, as well as potential errors in reporting. We also utilized better spatial resolution data from the Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA) and the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). Due to the essential nature of marine resources for the I-Kiribati, it is important that greater transparency is applied to the monitoring and reporting of all Kiribati fisheries, not just industrial tuna fisheries. Large-scale industrial catches were deemed to be not truly domestic and were analysed separately. They were found to be relatively well reported via the FFA and WCPFC with only discards being unreported. Total small-scale marine fisheries catches for the time period 1950-2010 were estimated at 1,314,800 t, which is 40% higher than the 955,660 t reported by the FAO on behalf of Kiribati. However, this included an estimated 200,030 t of unaccounted catch within the reported data, which highlights the issues of data accountability and accuracy faced by Kiribati’s (and other small developing countries’) fisheries department handicapped by limited financial and technical resources.
#2014-03 Zylich, Kyrstn, Soohyun Shon, Sarah Harper, and Dirk Zeller 2014. Reconstruction of Total Marine Fisheries Catches for the Republic of Vanuatu, 1950-2010, Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 18 p. (Full text)
Abstract: Vanuatu is an archipelago which boasts one of the lowest per capita consumption rates of seafood among the South Pacific islands. Despite this fact, seafood is still an important contributor to the Ni-Vanuatu diet and economy. The reconstruction of total marine fisheries catch of Vanuatu showed that the reconstructed total catches of 886,700 t were 9.4% higher than the 810,021 t reported by the FAO on behalf of Vanuatu for the period 1950-2010. However, if only small-scale catches are considered (i.e., large-scale tuna and shark fisheries are excluded), it is estimated that reconstructed catches (164,100 t) are 64% higher than the 99,842 t reported catches assumed to represent the small-scale sector. The subsistence sector was found to be most important amongst small-scale fisheries with almost 84% of the small-scale catches. Exports were estimated to contribute 4.1% to the small-scale catch and tourist consumption 1.7%.
#2014-02 Haas, Andrea, Sarah Harper, Kyrstn Zylich, James Hehre, and Dirk Zeller. 2014. Reconstruction of the Republic of the Marshall Islands Fisheries Catches: 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2014-07, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Abstract: Reconstructed total catches of the Republic of the Marshall Islands were estimated to be approximately 661,500 t over the 1950-2010 time period, which is 37% higher than the 483,364 t reported by the FAO on behalf of the Marshall Islands. The people of the Marshall Islands have been dependent on subsistence fisheries throughout history. The subsistence sector contributes 78% (i.e., 116,800 t) to small-scale catches, with the remaining 33,800 t being artisanal (i.e., small-scale commercial). Large-scale commercial (i.e., industrial) fisheries for large pelagic species have only developed in the last decade, but still contribute 77% (i.e., 510,900 t) of the total catch for the 1950-2010 period considered here. This clearly highlights the substantial impact that large-scale fisheries may have on marine resources, and illustrates the need for effective fisheries management in order to ensure food security for the local population of the Marshall Islands.
#2014-01 Sumaila, Rashid U., Andrés Cisneros Montemayor, and Vicky WY Lam. 2014. Marine Commercial Fisheries Versus Marine Tourism Economic Benefits. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2014-07, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 17 p.
Abstract: Which sector has been growing fastest: marine commercial fisheries or marine tourism? We explored this question by using time series data for a number of economic indicators from 1980 to the present. Our analysis revealed that compared to 1980, commercial fisheries (ecotourism) landed values (expenditures) increased by 12% (38%) during the mid to late 2000s while the economic impacts generated in the two sectors increased by 7% and 38%, respectively. Finally, household income effects from commercial fishing and ecotourism increased by 1% and 38%, respectively, over the period under consideration. These results are initial indications that marine ecotourism has been growing faster than marine commercial fishing, and therefore the former is more of an industry of the future than the latter.

#2013-11 Schiller, L. J.-J. Alava, J. Grove, G. Reck and D. Pauly. 2013. A reconstruction of fisheries catches for the Galápagos islands, 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper 37 p.
Abstract: The Galápagos Islands are one of Earth’s last biodiversity edens. As such, the conservation of their terrestrial and marine wildlife, including the sustainable management of local fisheries, is of paramount importance. Although the commercial exploitation of marine resources in the Galápagos did not begin until the 1930s, issues of overexploitation and mismanagement are already of serious concern. However, to date, research on Galápagos fisheries has been largely species or island specific, and no long-term cumulative catch statistics exist. In this study, total landings associated with the industrial and artisanal fisheries of the Galápagos Islands, were compiled and analyzed in an effort to accurately depict the amount of seafood that has been extracted from this region over the last six decades. The total catch for all sectors from 1950-2010 was 797,000 t, of which industrially caught tuna made up 80%. Our results also show a high degree of fishing down within the inshore ecosystem catch, whereby planktivorous mullets have replaced high trophic level groupers within the past three decades. This shift has coincided with the spatial expansion of the Galápagos fishing fleet to farther off-shore, where predatory species are not yet depleted.

In addition to legally caught and exported seafood, the Galápagos is also a hotspot for illegal fishing. Of primary concern is the amount of shark finning that has occurred and continues to occur in the Galápagos Marine Reserve, despite attempts at mitigating this ecologically destructive and wasteful practice.

#2013-10 Miller, Dana, and Dirk Zeller. 2013. Reconstructing Ireland’s marine fisheries catches: 1950-2010 Fisheries Centre Working Paper 49 p.
Abstract: The wasteful practice of discarding catch is one of the major problems associated with European fisheries. Despite this, estimates of discarded catch are not included in the ‘Official Catch Statistics’ database (1905 to present) collected and maintained by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). Furthermore, removals through recreational sea angling and estimates of other forms of unreported landings are often also missing from this dataset. Here, total discarded catch and unreported landings made by Irish commercial fishing vessels, and the total amount of fish caught and retained through Irish sea angling activities within the Northeast Atlantic from 1950 to 2010 have been estimated. Total reconstructed catches were 19.3% and 20.9% higher than the officially recorded total landings as reported by ICES from the Northeast Atlantic, and those estimated as being from within the Irish Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), respectively. Discarded catch was proportionately the largest component of the reconstruction, representing 12.7% of the total catch within the Irish EEZ. The Irish catch reconstruction presented here is by no means assumed to represent the complete record of total removals and the authors encourage further efforts to improve upon this attempt. However, considering the current absence of estimated values for discarded catch, recreational removals and other unreported landings from officially and publicly reported data, we feel that our reconstruction provides an improved baseline estimate of more accurate total Irish marine fisheries catch that has not previously been made publicly available.
#2013-09 Ulman A, B. Çiçek, I. Salihoglu, A. Petrou, M. Patsalidou, D. Pauly and D. Zeller. 2013. The reconstruction and unification of Cyprus’s marine fisheries catch data, 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 73 p.
Abstract: The island of Cyprus has been divided since 1974, into the north and south regions inhabited respectively by Turkish Cypriots and Greek Cypriots. Here, we present the total marine fishery removals for the island in its entirety from 1950-2010. Cyprus’s total marine fisheries catches were estimated for the 1950-2010 time period using a reconstruction approach, which estimated all fishery removals and included components for all unreported catches, including discards, subsistence catches and recreational catches. These estimates were added to the ‘officially reported’ data, as reported by all member countries to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The total reconstructed catch for the 1950-2010 time period inclusive of the reported data is just over 235,200 t, while the reported data amounted to 93,200 t. This added approximately 142,000 t (257%) to the reported FAO amount, i.e., approximately 51,000 t of large-scale commercial landings, 35,000 t of small-scale commercial landings, 29,000 t of discard, 20,600 t of subsistence landings, and nearly 6,600 t of recreational catches. Improving on the accuracy of fishery statistics is fundamental for better understanding fisheries resource use and enhancing fisheries management capacity.
#2013-08 Smith, N., and D. Zeller. 2013. Bahamas Catch Reconstruction: Fisheries Trends in a Tourism-Driven Economy (1950- 2010) Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver
Abstract: Tourism is the primary industry in The Bahamas and is closely linked to fisheries. Fish is an important source of protein for tourists and residents, and both groups expect to catch and eat local fish. Demand for local fish by a burgeoning tourism industry combined with similar demands from a growing resident population, however, raises an important question: Can domestic fisheries satisfy current fishing and seafood consumption patterns of both groups in the long-term? To answer this question, we need to know, among other things, total fisheries removals from all sectors, as well as patterns of fisheries demand by tourists versus residents in the past and present. Using an established catch reconstruction approach, we provide a more comprehensive accounting of Bahamian fisheries catches from commercial and noncommercial sectors from 1950-2010. Results are in marked contrast to national data that are supplied to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), which present only commercial landings. Reconstructed total catches for The Bahamas were over 884,400 t for 1950-2010, and were 2.6 times the landings of 336,190 t presented by the FAO on behalf of The Bahamas. This discrepancy was due to unreported catches from the sport and subsistence fisheries, as well as systematic under-reporting of commercial catches. Moreover, we found that removals from the sport fishery alone represented more than half (55% or 490,000 t) of reconstructed total catches. Yet in The Bahamas, catches from this sector remain unreported. Additionally, we quantified demand for local fish by tourists from 1950-2010, using a combination of tourism industry data, tourist sport fishing regulations, and hotel seafood consumption surveys. We found that nearly 662,000 t, i.e., 75% of reconstructed total catches were attributed to demand by the tourism industry from 1950-2010. Of this, 66% (nearly 436,000 t) was driven by tourist sport fishing activities. In contrast, tourist consumption of local seafood in hotel restaurants accounted for just under 226,000 t from 1950-2010, equating to more than half of reconstructed total commercial catches (including exports) in most years. Thus, tourists consume larger quantities of local fish than reported (or reconstructed) commercial catch data suggest, and substantial amounts of unreported commercial catches end up in hotel restaurants. Further investigations are needed to improve upon these data. Nevertheless, this study provides a preliminary baseline for historic fisheries catches and estimates tourism demand for local fish over the past half century.
#2013-07 Belhabib, D. A. Mendy, D. Zeller and D. Pauly. 2013. Big fishing for small fishes: six decade of fisheries in The Gambia, “the smiling coast of Africa”. Fisheries Centre Working Paper 20 p. (Full Text)
#2013-06 Belhabib, D., Y. Subah, N.T. Broh, A.S. Jueseah, J.N. Nipey, W.Y. Boeh, D. Copeland, D. Zeller and D. Pauly. Fisheries Centre Working Paper 2013. When reality leaves a lot to the imagination: Liberian fisheries from 1950 to 2010. 18 p. (Full Text)
#2013-03 Belhabib, D., V. Koutob, N. Gueye, I. Mbaye, C. Mathews , V. Lam and D. Pauly. 2013. Lots of boat and fewer fishes: a preliminary catch reconstruction for Senegal, 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper 31 p. (Full Text)
#2013-02 McBride, Margaret M., Beau Doherty, Atanásio J. Brito, Frédéric Le Manach, Lizette Sousa, Isabel Chauca, and Dirk Zeller. 2013. Marine fisheries catches in Mozambique: taxonomic disaggregation and update to 2010, Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: Reconstructed catch estimates for all marine fisheries sectors (small-scale and industrial including discards) were updated from a 2007 contribution by J. Jacquet and D. Zeller to encompass the entire 1950-2010 period, and the species composition of reconstructed catches was estimated for each year. The total reconstructed catch for 1950-2010 was approximately 9.5 million tonnes (t), a figure 5.3 times greater than the official FAO statistics, which reported landings of 1.8 million t over this 61-year period. However, significant improvements have occurred in the FAO reported catches for recent years (2003-2010), specifically in 2009 and 2010, when small-scale catches were considered to be comprehensively reported. Mozambique’s total marine fisheries catches for the 1950-2010 period were dominated by penaeid shrimps (12%), sciaenids (10%), clupeids (10%), engraulids (9%), and 37 other groupings of teleosts (53%). During this period, shifts are indicated to have occurred in species catch composition, which suggests a decrease in certain demersal families (Haemulidae, Lethrinidae, Lutjanidae, Serranidae and Siganidae).

#2012-04 Cisneros Montemayor, Andrés, Michele Barnes, Dalal Al-Abdulrazzak, Estrella Navarro-Holm, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2012. Global Economic Value of Shark Ecotourism: Implications for Conservation. Fisheries Centre Working Papers
Abstract: Amid declining shark populations due to overfishing, a burgeoning shark watching industry— already well established in some locations—generates benefits from their protection. We compile reported economic benefits at shark watching locations, and use a meta-analytical approach to estimate benefits at sites without available data. Results suggest that globally, about 590 thousand shark watchers generate expenditures of over 314 million USD per year, supporting 10 thousand direct jobs. By comparison, the landed value of global shark fisheries is currently about 630 million USD and has been in decline for most of the past decade. Based on current observed trends, shark watcher numbers could more than double within the next twenty years, generating over 780 million USD in expenditures around the world. This supports optimistic projections at new sites, including those in an increasing number of shark sanctuaries enacted in recognition of the ecological, and economic, importance of living sharks.
#2012-03 Trujillo, Pablo, Andrés Cisneros Montemayor, Sarah Harper, and Dirk Zeller. 2012. Reconstruction of Costa Rica's marine fisheries catches (1950-2008). Fisheries Centre Working Papers
Abstract: Total marine fisheries catches in Costa Rica’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) were reconstructed for 1950-2008 and compared to officially reported data as supplied to FAO by the government of Costa Rica. The reconstruction consists of improving FAO fisheries statistics with unreported data, including discarded bycatch, and unreported artisanal, recreational and subsistence catches. During the time period considered, total reconstructed catches were 2.3 times higher than data supplied to FAO by Costa Rica. Of the previously unaccounted catch, 87% was shrimp trawl bycatch, 10% was misreported and unreported shark catches, and the rest was unmonitored subsistence fishing, and cockle and whelk harvest. According to data supplied to FAO, Costa Rican fisheries have extracted an average of 13,000 t·year-1 from their EEZ since 1950; our revised estimates suggest that total catches are closer to 30,000 t·year-1. This discrepancy has major implications for fisheries management and sustainability actions in this country, whose economy hinges heavily on the conservation of the terrestrial and marine ecosystem for ecotourism.
#2012-01 Ishimura, G., and Megan Bailey. 2012. The market value of freshness: Observations from the swordfish and blue shark longline fishery in Kesennuma, Japan. Fisheries Centre Working Papers
Abstract: The freshness of fish, defined as the time period from capture to consumer, is often significant in determining the market value of the harvested fish. This seafood freshness can be improved by shortening the time from harvest to landing. The opportunistic nature of the marine capture fishery sector, however, can encourage fishers to extend their time at sea to catch additional fish, while holding already-harvested fish. Here, fishers face a trade-off problem, with the option of extending the duration of their operations but compromising their ability to maintain freshness of their already-harvested fish. This study estimates the freshness premium of fisheries for two species, swordfish (Xiphiasgladius) and blue shark (Prionaceglauca), landed at Kesennuma, Japan. Swordfish is generally destined for the raw market, while blue shark is often processed into several products. Our results suggest quite substantial heterogeneity in the freshness premium, depending on the likelihood of a product being consumed as fresh or processed. This work is an important investigation into the Kesennuma which has suffered devastating damage from the tsunami following the Tohoku Earthquake.

#2011-06 Christensen, V., C. Piroddi, M. Coll, J. Steenbeek, J. Buszowski and D. Pauly. 2011. Fish biomass in the world ocean: A century of decline. Fisheries Centre Working Paper. 20 p.
#2011-05 Hoover, Carie, Megan Bailey, Jeff Higdon, Steven H. Ferguson, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2011. Estimating the economic value of narwhal and beluga hunts in Hudson Bay, Nunavut. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: Hunting of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) and beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) in Hudson Bay is an important activity providing food and income in northern communities. Despite this importance, there are few studies detailing the economic aspects of these hunts. In this paper, we outline the uses of narwhal and beluga, in addition to estimating revenues, costs and economic use value associated with the hunt, based on harvests for the 2007 year. We also explore how assumptions about the opportunity cost of labour may affect the estimated value of these hunts. The economic use value for the communities participating in each hunt averaged a negative value of $9399 for beluga and a positive value of $133,278 for narwhal. Including the effects of cost sharing with one other hunting activity resulted in increasing the value to $266,504 for beluga and $321,500 for narwhal. Narwhals provide a higher value per whale, in addition to a higher per capita total economic value to the community as resources are shared among fewer people compared to belugas. However, the beluga hunt overall provides greater revenue, as more belugas are harvested. Our results indicate that the value of whales to communities is largely due to their food value. We discuss implications of our findings to ongoing changes in human health and the local environment.
#2011-04 Le Manach, Frédéric, Sarah Harper, Alasdair Harris, Gilles Hosch, G. M. Lange, Ashley McCrea-Strub, Dirk Zeller, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2011. Who gets what? Developing a new framework for EU fisheries partnership agreements by example of Madagascar. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: As the Doha Round of Trade Negotiations now aims for an “early harvest” package, and as the Common Fisheries Policy reform is still being discussed, it is of paramount importance to study current fishing practices to improve them and head towards sustainable fisheries worldwide. This study aimed to understand and discuss Fisheries Partnership Agreements between the European Union and African - Caribbean - Pacific countries by focusing on Madagascar. It worryingly appears that these agreements mainly benefit to EU industrials, while host countries receive a bare financial aid for development purposes for a likely severe overexploitation of their resource. Indeed, these agreements creating important subsidies for EU industrials, concerns about overexploitation and sustainability are raised, which must be addressed quickly. Throughout the discussion of past and current agreements between the EU and Madagascar, we propose to develop a new multilateral framework for these agreements, where fishing fees are indexed on the market - value of the targeted species, and where all costs are paid by industrials. By doing so, benefits for both hosts countries and EU industrials would likely increase, along with a reduction in fleet capacity and improved monitoring system. Decoupled from these agreements should then come the EU financial aid to development, constituting proper incentives toward fairer and more sustainable exploitation of marine resources, in line with current reforms and negotiations.
#2011-03 Teh, Louise SL, Lydia CL Teh, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2011. Time preference of small-scale fishers in open access and traditionally managed reef fisheries. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: We investigate whether small-scale fishers in an open-access fishery in Sabah, Malaysia have 'infinite' discount rates, and whether the tendency for having 'infinite' discount rates is different under customarily managed fisheries in Fiji. We use an experimental economics approach to elicit fisher's discount rates, and find that fishers in both countries have high annual discount rates that are on average over 200%. Further, fishers in Fiji are not less likely to have 'infinite' discount rates. Our results suggest that fishers under both open access and customary management are prone to high discount rates; thus, using a fishing access rights management system may not be a fail-proof solution for encouraging sustainable fishery use.
#2011-02 Sumaila, Ussif Rashid, and Megan Bailey. 2011. Sequential fishing of western central Pacific Ocean tuna stocks. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: We develop sequential game theoretic models involving the purse seine fleet used by domestic countries of the Western Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) tuna stock, such as the Philippines and Indonesia, and the longline fleet used mainly by distant water fishing nations to target tuna in the same region. Purse seines target mainly skipjack but in so doing they also catch a sizable quantity of juvenile bigeye and yellowfin tuna. The longline fleet is split into two groups, that is, the shallow water longline fleet that targets both bigeye and yellowfin, and the deep water longline fleet, which targets mainly bigeye stocks. The purse seine fleet take juvenile bigeye and yellowfin tuna before the longline fleet gets the chance to target them, thereby creating a sequential game situation. We analyse joint (cooperative) versus separate (non - cooperative) management of fhese three stocks of tuna in the WCPO with a view to isolating the net benefit loss due to separate management. Results of the analyzes suggest that (i) it is economically optimal to cut back significantly on the bycatch of bigeye and yellowfin by reducing the use of Fish Aggregating Devices; and (ii) such a cut in bycatch will result in a loss to the domestic countries that target skipjack but this loss is much smaller than the gain in the potential benefit to the longline fleet. For joint management to be implemented, an institutional arrangement is needed to allow domestic countries using purse seines to share in the gains from cooperation, thereby meeting the individual rationality requirement.
#2011-01 Bailey, Megan, Ussif Rashid Sumaila, and SJD Martell. 2011. Can Cooperative Management of Tuna Fisheries in the Pacific Solve the Growth Overfishing Problem?. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: Tuna fisheries in the western and central Pacific Ocean are important globally for both food and economic security. Yellowfin and bigeye tuna stocks in this region are declining, in part due to the juvenile bycatch of these species by the purse seine fishery using fish aggregating devices (FADs). A conflict exists between the longline and handline fisheries, which target adult fish, and the purse seine fishery, which targets skipjack but also takes juvenile yellowfin and bigeye as bycatch, leading to growth overfishing. This paper develops a bioeconomic game-theoretic equilibrium model to determine if, at equilibrium, the elimination of juvenile fishing could bring economic benefits to the region. Specifically, we examine non-cooperative and cooperative outcomes for a three player game: purse seine, longline and handline, incorporating skipjack, yellowfin and bigeye as target species. Our results suggest that the reduction or elimination of FAD fishing could result in increased net benefits to the region from US $150 to US $400 million per year; however, this gain is not shared equitably among the three fisheries. Notably, purse seine fisheries stand to lose economically through the reduction or elimination of FAD use. The realization of potential economic gains for this region will require the formation of a cooperative sharing system.

#2010-13 Lam, Vicky WY, Ussif Rashid Sumaila, Andrew J. Dyck, Daniel Pauly, and Reg Watson. 2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Construction and potential applications of a global cost of fishing database
Abstract: The development of a global database of fishing cost is first described and then an overview of fishing cost patterns at the national, regional and global scales is provided. This fishing cost database provides crucial economic information that is necessary for assessing the economics of global fisheries and is useful for incorporation into sustainable management. The database was organized into two broad cost categories, that is, variable and fixed costs, for 144 maritime countries. Together, these countries captured approximately 98% of global landings in 2005. The cost data is categorized into country and gear type combinations, and this structure allows the cost data to link to spatially defined catch database for future analysis in both spatial and temporal dimensions. Costs also varied between gear types with tuna longliner and dredge being the gears with the highest variable and total fishing costs. When comparing costs across FAO regions, Oceania is shown to have the highest unit variable cost. The global average variable and total cost per tonne of catch in 2005 is estimated to range between US$ 608 and US$ 1,356 and US$ 732 and US$ 1,605, with middle values of US$ 970 and US$ 1,155, respectively. We estimate the total annual global variable fishing cost to be in the range of US$ 58-129 billion with an average of US$ 92 billion per year in year 2005 dollars.
#2010-12 Cheung, William WL, Shawn Booth, Dirk Zeller, and Daniel Pauly. 2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Impact of climate change on US marine fisheries with emphasis on the Gulf and Southeast Atlantic States
Abstract: This report presents an adaptation to the USA of a previous global study of the effect of global warming on marine biodiversity and fisheries. In the northern hemisphere, global warming is predicted to cause a northward movement of many species, including those exploited by commercial and recreational fisheries. Thus, using the output of a coupled atmosphere-ocean model and the relationships between exploited species, one can predict their distribution range, which largely determines their catch potential. Applied globally, this relationship predicts that some countries will win and others will lose species under global warming, because the species relied upon by fisheries will move poleward. Thus, countries in the lower latitudes will tend to lose species and catch potential (Malaysia, Indonesia), while more northern countries will benefit (for example, Iceland and Norway). As a country spanning a wide range of latitudes, the USA may experience little overall change in potential catch. However, when examined on a State by State basis, the picture becomes more informative, with Alaska gaining about 17% catch potential from the 2000s to the 2050s, and the Southeastern and Gulf States losing 20% or more of their catch potential in the same period. As is the case for all predictions of the future impacts of climate change, this study and its results are subject to a number of caveats, ranging from the quality of the underlying physical data to the various assumptions detailed in the scientific publications from which this report as adapted. Nevertheless, we are confident that our results are robust, and that fisheries of the Southeastern and Gulf States will be severely affected by global warming.
#2010-11 Trites, Andrew W., and Andrea Coombs Wallace. 2010. Summer haulouts are breeding sites: Redefining the reproductive strategy of Steller sea lions, Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) are commonly thought to rest at haulout sites and breed at rookeries. To test the assumption that breeding does not occur at haulouts, we recorded reproductive behavior (through direct observations of courtships and copulations with bulls) at two haulout sites in Alaska during the spring and summer seasons (1996 - 1998). Mature males were noted to hold territories on the haulouts, and were seen to engage in courtships and copulations with nonpregnant females that were either unencumbered or nursing offspring from a previous year. Breeding at these haulouts appeared to occur one to two weeks earlier than it did on the rookery. Our observations suggest that the breeding strategy for Steller sea lions should be redefined to recognize that summer haulouts are important breeding areas for some females. Consequently, haulouts should not be thought of as strictly non - breeding sites. Steller sea lions use 88 rookeries and about 600 haulouts throughout their range — with a large portion of the population remaining at haulouts during the breeding season. The reproductive behavior that occurs at haulouts during summer may therefore be significant to the recovery of Steller sea lions, and should be considered when implementing management strategies.
#2010-10 Trites, Andrew W., Rowenna Flinn, Ruth Joy, and Brian Battaile. 2010. Was the decline of Steller sea lions in the Aleutian Islands from 2000 to 2009 related to the Atka mackerel fishery?, Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: The goal of our study was to determine whether there was a relationship between the decline of Steller sea lions and the Atka mackerel fishery in Fishery Management Areas 541, 542 and 543 from 2000 - 2009. Data available to us included the numbers of non-pup sea lions counted in 2000, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 by the US National Marine Fisheries Service, and the amounts and locations of Atka mackerel caught per haul for all trawlers targeting Atka mackerel in the Aleutian Islands from 2000 - 2009. We applied Generalized Estimating Equation models to these data to test whether numbers of sea lions or changes in numbers of sea lions were related to the frequency of trawling (number of hauls) and amounts of fish caught within 10, 20 or 40 nautical miles of sea lion rookeries and haulouts. We considered the total amount of fish removed within the three nautical mile zones (i.e., 10, 20 and 40 nm) as a measure of possible depletion of sea lion prey, and used the average catch per haul within each zone as a localized relative measure of stock size of Atka mackerel available to sea lions.

We found significant relationships between longitude and catch, and between longitude and number of hauls, for Atka mackerel for some of the models, suggesting that these metrics could not distinguish a fishing effect (if it existed ) from some other geographically influenced variable on Steller sea lion numbers at the trend sites. For the remaining models that were free of the confounding effect of geographic location — none detected a negative relationship between fishing (number of hauls and total catch) and sea lion numbers . However, three models found small positive associations between fishing and sea lion numbers. Most notably, greater numbers of sea lions were associated with greater numbers of hauls within 10 nm of rookeries and haulouts; and there was a positive relationship between total catch within 40 nm of rookeries and numbers of sea lions counted at rookeries; as well as a positive relationship using the change - based models suggesting that the haulouts that increased the fastest were associated with greater increases in fishing activity (number of hauls) and amounts of Atka mackerel removed within 20nm. None of these findings were consistent with the apriori expectation that lower sea lion numbers should be associated with greater fishing effort.

We considered average catch per haul to be a relative measure of Atka mackerel abundance and found that sea lion numbers at rookeries and haulouts were not dependent on Atka mackerel biomass. Thus the models failed to find a relationship between average catch (our proxy for Atka mackerel abundance) and sea lion numbers. However, a relationship was noted for the change in average catch per haul between years and longitude, suggesting that differences in stock size changed systematically with geographic location.

#2010-09 McCrea-Strub, A., U.R. Sumaila, D. Zeller, J. Nelson and D. Pauly. 2010. Understanding the cost of establishing marine protected areas. (Full Text), Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: While the recurrent cost of managing marine protected areas (MPAs) has been documented and estimated, there has been virtually no attempt to quantify the cost of establishing MPAs in the first place. This lack of attention is likely the result of the complexity of the process, involving often uncoordinated efforts of a multitude of governmental and non-governmental entities over a protracted period of time with no clear start and end-point. Using information gathered from a representative subset of MPAs worldwide, this paper presents the first attempt to identify and describe the various components, and explore potential predictors of the total funds spent in the course of establishment. The thirteen MPAs studied vary in size (from <1 km 2 to >360,000km 2 ), location (including near- and offshore in both developed and developing countries), objectives and degree of protection. Variation in MPA start-up costs is shown to be most significantly related to both MPA size and the duration of the establishment phase. Development of a method to estimate the potential cost of establishing proposed MPAs should play a crucial role in the conservation planning process.
#2010-08 Lescrauwaet, Ann-Katrien, Heidi Debergh, Magda Vincx, and Jan Mees. 2010. Historical Marine Fisheries Data for Belgium. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2010-08, UBC, Vancouver, Canada.
Abstract: Time series on landings of marine fisheries in Flanders were reported as early as 1767 (1767-1780; 1836-1906) for herring, salted cod and ‘fresh fish’ (unidentified species). Our literature screening for time-series on landings and the economic value of these landings indicated that structurally embedded reporting in Belgium (Flanders) started in 1929 with an acceptable degree of consistency and continuity ever since. The final target of the present exercise will be to reconstruct time series at the lowest taxonomic level and spatial scale, based on the available systematic and consistent reporting. Thus, the present study details the data-structure and data integration for the final reconstruction exercise. The beginning of structural reporting on fisheries and landings coincided with the period where most states in Europe developed a statistical approach to underpin policy development. Historical data on (value of) landings before 1998 were only available in printed hard copy and none of the data or time-series contained in the reports were available electronically in the public domain. No legal or other data policy restrictions were indicated or applicable. The present exercise demonstrates the feasibility of constructing a standardized and integrated database. By means of this standardization and integration, time series for the period 1929-1999 were covered on a detailed level by species (n = 41), by port of landing (four in Belgium, two in France, and one ‘foreign port’), by fishing area of origin (n = 31). Detailed landings in foreign ports covered the period 1950-1999. The total amount of reported landings covered by the integrated historical fisheries database (‘HiFiDatabase’) over the period 1929-1999 amounts to 3,107,638 metric tonnes, of which 2,830,815 tonnes (91%) were landed in Belgian ports and 256,566 tonnes in ‘foreign ports’, with an additional 20,256 tonnes in Dunkerque and Gravelines (France) during World War II. The total value of these landings amounts to €2,277,999,993 which recalculated to account for inflation represents €6,075,090,365 in 2007 Euro. The most important species in terms of landings were cod and herring (respectively 17% and 16% of total landings). In terms of indexed value, sole (31%) and cod (15%) were the most valuable species. Close to 73% of all landed species originated from five fishing areas: Coastal waters (shallow waters off Belgium, northern France and the Netherlands), the southern North Sea, the areas around Iceland, and the central North Sea. Twenty percent of all landed species originated from the shallow coastal waters. The southern North Sea and the Icelandic waters follow closely with 17% and 16%, respectively. The coastal waters contributed nearly 60% of all landed pelagic species and 55% of all landed molluscs and crustaceans reported for the period 1929-1999. The integrated database allows broadening our historical view of fisheries. It underlines the strong decline in landings since reporting started in Belgium, and allows further analysis by particular species and fishing grounds. The integration of the data also allowed additional quality control, based on visual analysis. The amount of time and effort needed to construct exchange able formats and quality controlled, integrated time-series based on the currently available sources, provided an indication of why the historical component of marine fisheries is practically absent in ecological science and fisheries management.
#2010-07 Pauly, D., and M.L.D. Palomares. 2010. An empirical equation to predict annual increases in fishing efficiency. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2010-07, UBC, Vancouver, Canada. (Full Text)
Abstract: This contribution presents a meta-analysis of estimates of the slow increase of technological efficiency, or 'creep’, obtained by various authors for a number of demersal and pelagic fisheries. This fact or is used in fisheries science to adjust for the gradual increase in the effectiveness of fishing gear resulting from the successive introduction of technological improvement to fishing gear and vessels. Altogether, 39 estimates of this creep factor, mostly around 2-4% per year, and covering periods from 6 to 120 years, were assembled or newly calculated from secondary data, and shown to decrease as the period covered increased. This finding is compatible with the hypothesis that creep factors are usually estimated and published to correct for the introduction of a very effective new technology over a shorter period of time. We suggest that estimates obtained in this fashion cannot be applied to long-term analyses and propose instead an empirical relationship derived from estimates of creep factor and number of years covered in a study. Also, this study confirms that technology creep must be included in all analyses involving time series of fishing effort, particularly if they exceed a decade in temporal coverage.
#2010-06 Christensen, Villy, Jeroen Steenbeek, and Pierre Failler. 2010. A Combined Ecosystem and Value Chain Modeling Approach for Evaluating Societal Cost and Benefit of Fishing, Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: We describe a combined ecological and economic approach aimed at giving more equal emphasis to both disciplines, while being integrated so that design, analysis, data entry and storage, and result capabilities are developed with emphasis on deriving a user-friendly, easily accessible tool. We have thus developed the approach as an integrated module of the freely available Ecopath with Ecosim scientific software; the world's most widely applied ecological modeling tool. We link the trophic ecosystem model to a value-chain approach where we explicitly and in considerable detail keep track of the flow (amounts, revenue, and costs) of fish products from sea through to the end consumer. We also describe the social aspects of the fish production and trade, by evaluating employment and income diagnostics. This is done with emphasis on distribution income while accounting for social aspects of the fishing sector. From a management perspective, one of the interesting aspects of the approach we introduce here, is that it opens for direct evaluation of what impact management interventions, e.g., quota settings, effort regulation, or area closures, may have on the ecosystem, the economy and the social setting, as well as on food availability for the consumer.
#2010-05 Cisneros-Montemayor, A.M., U.R. Sumaila, K. Kaschner and D. Pauly. 2010. The Global Potential for Whale Watching, Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2010-05, UBC, Vancouver, Canada. (Full Text)
Abstract: Whaling as a commercial enterprise is now defunct, not least due to the moratorium placed on it by the international Whaling Commission (IWC) almost 20 years ago. However, two distinct groups, one in favor of 'sustainable’ whaling and one completely opposed to any killing of whales, continue to argue at the IWC and other political arenas. Almost ignored in this debate is the current growth of the whale watching industry, a logical alternative use for whale populations. Based on ecological and socio-economic criteria, the potential for whale watching is estimated for maritime countries that do not currently engage in this industry. Results suggest that whale watching could generate an additional 410 million USD (2009) in yearly revenue, supporting 5,700 jobs. Together with current global estimates, this would bring the total potential for the whale watching industry to over 2.5 billion USD in yearly revenue and about 19,000 jobs around the world. These results are discussed from an economic and conservation policy perspective, with emphasis on potential benefits and limitations.
#2010-04 Bawumia, Mahamudu, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2010. Fisheries, Ecosystems and Piracy: A Case Study of Somalia, Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: It has been argued that a possible root case of Somali piracy is the (illegal) overfishing that has been taking place in the country's waters, which has deprived local fishers of their livelihoods, and which may be considered as another form of 'piracy'. In this paper, we explore the origins of this argument using both historical and ecosystem justice frameworks. We demonstrate in this contribution that this claim has some wings to it and that further research is needed to verify if this claim, as we suspect, is empirically valid.
#2010-03 Ishimura, G., Sam Herrick, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2010. The Cost of Delaying Cooperative Management of a Transboundary Fish Stock Vulnerable to Climate Variability: The Case of Pacific Sardine
Abstract: Challenges in the management of a transboundary fish stock, with time variant and asymmetric distribution of biomass caused by ocean climate variability, lie in delaying the implementation of cooperative management and the incurring of cost due to such delays. This is particularly true for Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), which has exhibited extreme decadal variability corresponding to warm and cold regime shifts of the California Current Ecosystem (CCE). Pacific sardine is exclusively fished by Canada, the U.S. and Mexico without any cooperative agreements in place. Our study applied a three-agent bioeconomic framework that incorporated environmental effects on sardine abundance and biomass distribution to estimate the cost of delaying cooperative management of this fishery. Our results showed that the cost of delaying cooperative management is significant for a country having a dominant share, while countries that have minor shares gain economic benefits from delaying cooperative management.
#2010-02 Ishimura, G., Sam Herrick, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2010. Can There be Stable, Cooperative Management of a Transboundary Fish Stock Under Climate Variability? The Case Study of the Pacific Sardine Fishery, Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: The time variant/asymmetric distribution of a fish stock caused by climate variability is one of the challenges to the stability of cooperative management of a transboundary fish stock. Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), which exhibit extreme decadal variability in abundance and geographic distribution corresponding to water temperature regime shifts within the California Current Ecosystem (CCE) is expected to face such issues. Pacific sardine is a transboundary resource which is caught by Mexican, U.S. and Canadian fisheries. Our study applied a three-agent bioeconomic framework that incorporates environmental effects on Pacific sardine abundance and biomass distribution. Simulations were conducted to evaluate the stability of full and partial cooperative management of Pacific sardine fisheries under six different climate variability scenarios. Our results show that ocean climate variability is an obstacle to the formation of stable full cooperative management outcomes for the Pacific sardine fisheries operated by Canada, the U.S. and Mexico.
#2010-01 Ishimura, G., Sam Herrick, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2010. Fishing Games Under Climate Variability: Transboundary Management of Pacific Sardine in the California Current System, Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), which is a transboundary resource targeted by Mexican, U.S. and Canadian fisheries, has exhibited extreme decadal variability in its abundance and geographic distribution corresponding to water temperature regime shifts within the California Current Ecosystem. Our study develops a three-agent bioeconomic framework that incorporates environmental effects on sardine abundance and biomass distribution. Simulations are conducted to evaluate the conservation and economic benefits of various management strategies for the time variant/asymmetric shares of the Pacific sardine resource by three countries.

#2009-12 Cullis-Suzuki, S. and D. Pauly. 2009. Evaluating global regional fisheries management organizations: methodology and scoring. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2009-12,23p. (Full Text)
Abstract: Regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs) collectively manage the largest distinct area of the world, the high seas, but their effectiveness in conserving the fish stocks therein has been questioned lately, as many stocks have declined. This study quantitatively assesses the effectiveness of the world’s 18 RFMOs, based on a two-tiered approach, concentrating first on their performance ‘on paper’ and secondly, in practice. The former was determined by assessing how well RFMOs scored against 26 criteria that together reflect current RFMO best practices. The latter assessment referenced the current state of the stocks RFMOs manage, through biomass and fishing mortality reference points and biomass trends through time. Results show low performance of RFMOs for both assessments, i.e., average scores of 57% and 49%, respectively. The latter result is emphasized by findings that reflect two-thirds of stocks fished on the high seas and under RFMO management are either depleted or overexploited. Findings also indicate that there is no connection between the two sets of scores, suggesting a disparity between organization intent and action.
#2009-11 Sumaila, U.R., A. Khan, A. Dyck, R. Watson, G. Munro, P. Tyedmers and D. Pauly. 2009. B
A Bottom-up Re-estimation of Global Fisheries Subsidies
. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2009-11, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada
Abstract: Using a recently developed database of fisheries subsidies for 148 maritime countries spanning 1989 to the present, total fisheries subsidies for the year 2003 is computed. A key feature of our estimation approach is that it explicitly deals with missing data from official sources, and includes estimates of subsidies to developing country fisheries. Our analysis suggests that global fisheries subsidies for 2003 are between US$ 25 - 29 billion, which is higher than an earlier World Bank estimate of between US$14-20 billion. This new estimate is lower than our 2000 global subsidies estimate of US$30-34 billion. We find that fuel subsidies compose about 15-30% of total global fishing subsidies, and that capacity enhancing subsidies sum to US$ 16 billion or about 60% of the total. These results imply that the global community is paying the fishing industry billions each year to continue fishing even when it would not be profitable otherwise – effectively funding the over-exploitation of marine resources
#2009-10 Srinivasan, U. T., William WL Cheung, Reg Watson, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2009.
Global Patterns of Potential Catch and Value Losses due to Overfishing
Fisheries Centre Working Paper, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada
Abstract: Excess fishing capacity and the growth in global demand for fishery products have made overfishing ubiquitous in the world's oceans. Here we describe the potential catch losses due to unsustainable fishing in all countries' exclusive economic zones (EEZs) and on the high seas over 1950-2004. To do so, we relied upon catch and price statistics from the Sea Around Us Project as well as a database of the intrinsic vulnerabilities of species to fishing pressure. In 2000 alone, estimated global losses amounted to about 10-25% of the actual tonnage landed that year, or a net present value of US$7.5-22 billion in constant 2004 dollars. From 1950-2004, approximately half of commercial species in two-thirds of EEZs may have been overexploited resulting in a loss in present value of between US$450 to US$1,300 million over the period. Susceptible species were depleted quickly and serially, with the average intrinsic vulnerability of the potential catch losses declining more than three times faster than that of actual landings. The three continental regions to incur greatest losses by mass were Europe, South America, and Asia - forming a geographic progression in time. But low-income and small island nations, heavily dependent on marine resources for protein, were impacted most profoundly. Our analysis shows that without the inexorable march of overfishing, ~19 million people worldwide could have averted undernourishment in 2000. For the same year, catches in the waters of low-income food deficit nations might have been ~75% greater than the tonnage actually landed there. The situation may be worst for Africa, in our analysis the continent to register the highest losses by quantity relative to its actual catches in year 2000, thus seriously threatening progress towards the UN Millennium Development Goals.
#2009-09 Cisneros Montemayor, Andrés, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila 2009. A Global Valuation of Ecosystem-Based Marine Recreation Fisheries Centre Working Paper, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada
Abstract: Participation in ecosystem-based marine recreational activities (MRAs) has increased around the world, adding a new dimension to human use of the marine ecosystem, and another good reason to strengthen effective management measures. A first step in studying the effects of MRAs at a global scale is to estimate their socioeconomic value, which is captured here by three indicators: the amount of participation, employment and direct expenditure by users. A database of reported expenditure on MRAs was compiled for 144 coastal countries. A meta-analysis was then performed to calculate the yearly global value for MRAs in terms of expenditure, participation and employment. It is estimated that 121 million people a year participate in MRAs, generating 47 billion USD (2003) in expenditures and supporting one million jobs. The results of this study have several implications for resource managers and for the tourism industry. Aside from offering the first estimation of the global socioeconomic importance of MRAs, this work provides insights on the drivers of participation and possible ecological impacts of these activities. Our results could also help direct efforts to promote adequate implementation of MRAs. Furthermore, we hope this work will provide a template for data collection on MRAs worldwide.
#2009-08 Dyck, Andrew J., and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2009. Contribution of Ocean Fish Populations to the World Economy Fisheries Centre Working Paper, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada
Abstract: Marine capture fisheries are an important component of food security for much of the world and a source of income and employment in several coastal nations. Estimates of gross revenues from capture fisheries suggest that this sector directly contributes US $85 billion to world output annually (Sumaila et al., 2007). Additionally, the contribution of capture fisheries to employment and household income is also thought to be extensive. However, as a primary industry, there are a vast number of secondary economic activities – from boat building to international transport – that are supported by world fisheries. This study applies an input-output methodology to estimate the total of direct, indirect, and induced effects of world marine capture fisheries. While results suggest that there is a great deal of variation in fishing output multipliers between regions and countries, when we apply the output multipliers to the capture fisheries sector at the global scale, we find that due to significant indirect and induced effects, the contribution of this sector to world output is more than four and a half times larger than the value of fish at first sale, amounting to about US$380 billion per year.
#2009-07 Martell, SJD, Carl J. Walters, and Ray Hilborn 2009. Using Survival and Growth Information as Surrogates for Trophic Variables That May Cause Delayed Density-Dependent Mortality in Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: Experimental increases in escapement of low cycle lines of sockeye salmon systems like the Fraser 3 River Quesnel stock had been expected to result in higher recruitments comparable to those exhibited by 4 larger, dominant lines. But these increases have been accompanied by unexpected, persistent decreases in 5 juvenile growth and survival that may be indicative of delayed density-dependent effects due to cumulative 6 impacts of high juvenile sockeye abundance on food and predator populations. We suggest simple dynamic 7 models of such cumulative responses, and compare their predictions to simpler statistical models that 8 incorporate delay effects using regressions that include earlier as well as current spawning abundance. 9 It remains unclear whether negative delay effects are large enough for Fraser River stocks to imply 10 that cyclic escapement regimes should be maintained, so adaptive management experiments aimed at 11 determining best escapement regimes should be continued.
#2009-06 Ekeland, I., C. Pareja, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2009. Fisheries Management and Intergenerational Equity Fisheries Centre Working Paper, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada
Abstract: We adapt the classical Schaefer model of fisheries management to take into account intergenerational equity, in the line of Sumaila ([18]) and Sumaila and Walters ([19]). The resulting discount rate then is non-constant, and the planner's preferences are time inconsistent, so that optimal solutions are not implementable. In the line of Ekeland and Lazrak ([6], [7]) we define Markov subgame perfect equilibria of the underlying sequential game. We characterize equilibrium strategies by a simple relation, and we reach a robust conclusion, namely that, to take into account intergenerational equity, the rate of time preference, ±, should be replace by ±¡n, where n is the rate of growth of the human population.
#2009-05 Walters, Carl J., Villy Christensen, Carl J. Walters, and Kenneth Rose. 2009. Representation of Multi-Stanza Life Histories in Ecospace Models for Spatial Organization of Ecosystem Trophic Interaction Patterns Fisheries Centre Working Paper, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada
Abstract: The Ecospace model for spatial organization of trophic interactions has seen limited use 16 for evaluation of policies such as marine protected areas, partly because of concern about 17 representing key indicator populations only by spatial biomass distributions. The 18 software has been improved to include spatial representation of age structure for such 19 species, using the Ecosim “multistanza” population submodel that assumes similar diet 20 compositions, predation risk, and vulnerability to fishing over blocks or stanzas of fish 21 ages. A computationally efficient version of Ecospace now preserves the multistanza age 22 structure over spatial habitat and ecosystem biomass maps, evaluating body growth and 23 mortality rates as spatial averages weighted by relative biomass use of each model spatial 24 cell. A computationally intense version divides each multistanza population into spatial 25 packets (an Indiviual-Based Model, IBM approach) for more precise analysis of how 26 movement patterns and movement histories over mosaics of trophic opportunities and 27 risks may impact on population performance and variability. The two approaches give 28 surprisingly similar predictions of abundance patterns over both time and space, agreeing 29 well in case study applications to the Gulf of Mexico and California coast with non-30 spatial Ecosim predictions and with each other.
#2009-04 Walters, Carl J., Ray Hilborn, and C. Costello. 2009.Comparison of Marine Protected Area Policies Using a Multispecies, Multigear Equilibrium Optimization Model (EDOM). Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2009-04, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada
Abstract: A multispecies, age-structured spatial model called EDOM is developed and used to evaluate impacts of multiple fishing fleets and marine protected areas on long term (equilibrium) fishery economic performance, catch, and abundance. Populations and fishing are represented on a grid of spatial cells, with linkage among cells due to larval and adult dispersal and inclusion of multiple cells in the home ranges of fish that are resident in or home to each cell for spawning. Recruitment to each cell is assumed to depend on area of suitable juvenile rearing habitat and on compensatory survival responses after larval settlement. Spatial fishing efforts are predicted using either gravity models or an economic optimization that distributes effort so as to maximize total profit for each fleet. The model predicts that imposition of MPA networks designed from habitat criteria will result in improved economic performance only if fishing effort is sub-optimally high outside reserves. Absent such MPAs, it can still be optimum to close some source or nursery areas to fishing, if larval dispersal results in a source-sink metapopulation structure and/or fishing in important nursery areas causes high bycatch mortality of pre-recruit juveniles.
#2009-03 Walters, Carl J., and Villy Christensen. 2009. Foraging Arena Theory Fisheries Centre Working Paper, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada
Abstract: Foraging arena theory argues that trophic interactions in aquatic ecosystems occur largely in spatially and temporally restricted arenas, such that interaction rates are severely limited by exchange rates of prey into and out of these arenas. Foraging arenas are created by a wide range of mechanisms, ranging from restrictions of predator distributions in response to predation risk caused by their own predators, to risk-sensitive foraging behaviour by their prey. Inclusion of vulnerability exchange processes in models for recruitment processes and food web responses to disturbances like harvesting leads to very different predictions about dynamic stability, trophic cascades, and maintenance of ecological diversity than do models based on large-scale mass action (random mixing) interactions between prey and predators.
#2009-02 Walters, Carl J.. 2009. Variation in Productivity of Southern British Columbia Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Stocks and Implications for Mixed-Stock Management Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: Long term escapement trends for 487 coho salmon stocks, recorded mainly by fisheries officers in the B.C. Salmon Escapement Data System (SEDS)for the period 1953-86, indicate considerable variation among stocks in productivity measured by maximum recruitment rate per spawner (Ricker a parameter), a key determinant of optimum fishing rate and extinction risk. Even greater variation is indicated when estimates are corrected for errors in variables and time series effects. There are few clear geographic trends in productivity over the region, except that stocks spawning in interior streams and near major net fishing areas tend to have lower apparent productivity. Several policy results are robust to uncertainties about bias correction and historical fishing mortality rates: (1) a high proportion of the stocks have been historically overfished, (2) the overall exploitation rate for future MSY is considerably below the historical average rate, (3) at the exploitation rate for long term MSY, a relatively low proportion of the stocks should be overfished and very few should be driven toward extinction, and (4) reducing exploitation rate to produce around 80% of MSY should radically reduce the proportions of stocks overfished and at risk to extinction, (5) if marine survival rates remain as low as for recent years, the long term optimum exploitation rate will be only about 1/3 of the historical average rate, and many stocks will be at risk of extinction even if there is no fishery.
#2009-01 Walters, Carl J., and T. Essington. 2009. Recovery of Bioenergetics Parameters from Information on Growth Fisheries Centre Working Paper, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada
Abstract: Parameters for size allometry in feeding and metabolic rates, along with Q10 parameters for responses of these rates to seasonal temperature change, can in principle be estimated from field data on growth, particularly seasonal tagging studies. However, it is still typically necessary to complement or constrain the field estimates with information from laboratory studies, particularly on power parameters for size allometry in metabolism, Q10 for metabolism, and responses of feeding rate at high temperatures. Ontogenetic habitat shifts can cause apparent changes in the size power parameters that are in fact due to temperature differences between the habitats. Seasonal changes in body condition (due to feeding, metabolism, and reproduction) can be represented using simple models for allocation of food intake to skeletal growth, though parameter estimation for such models is grossly unreliable when only seasonal changes in length growth rates have been measured.

#2008-07 Clark, Colin, Gordon R. Munro, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2008 Limits to the privatization of fishery resources. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: A debate is emerging over the extent to which privatization of fishery resources is practical and socially desirable. The “optimists” maintain that there are no effective limits to privatization and that the decades fear that privatization could, in some cases, lead to resource extinction are of theoretical interest only. This paper contributes to the debate by arguing that these fears are, regrettably, not baseless and that there are definite limits to socially desirable privatization. The paper goes on to discuss means by which such limits could be identified on a fishery by fishery basis.
#2008-06 Liu, Yajie, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2008 Estimating pollution abatement costs of salmon aquaculture: a joint production approach. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: Salmon aquaculture generates good output (i.e., salmon) and bad output (e.g., pollution). A joint production function approach is applied to model both outputs simultaneously. Two environmental production technologies are specified, namely, regulated and unregulated technologies. Two production functions with different mapping rules are applied. Pollution abatement costs are estimated based on a series of data from the Norwegian salmon aquaculture industry. Results indicate that pollution abatement costs vary among observations and models. On average, pollution abatement cost is estimated to be about 3.5% in terms of total farmed salmon production, and 6.5% in terms of total revenue of farmed salmon.
#2008-05 Marsden, Dale A., and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2008 Current and potential economic return in the Namibian hake fishery. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: We estimated the economic rent obtained currently (that is, in 2002) in the Namibian hake fishery and the rent that might potentially be obtainable if the fishery were managed optimally in an economic sense. We first reviewed previous economic and biological studies. We then used the theory and model of Arnason (2007) to estimate the current and potential rent in the Namibian hake fishery. Our estimates were that the current rent is 21 million USD (90% confidence interval in sensitivity analysis: 13-31) in 2002, with the potential for rent of approximately 112-118 million NAD (90% confidence intervals: 90-140 for logistic model and 84-135 for Fox model) annually if the fishery were managed optimally, i.e., with a smaller fishing fleet and therefore a much larger fish stock. These estimates were particularly sensitive to some parameters, especially the cost parameter, but in general appeared to be fairly robust. Our estimate of current rent is roughly in line with previous estimates of the same number, while our estimate of potential rent is somewhat higher. We find that approximately 5-6 times greater wealth could be generated from this fishery if it were managed in a way closer to the economic optimum.
#2008-04 Amegashie, J. A., and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2008 A note on endogenous time preference and the Commons: The case of the fishery. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: Most environmental and natural resource economics models apply exogenous discount rates (factors) to determine the present value of net benefits. Here, we consider a two-period model of the fishery where agents discount the future endogenously through investing into resources to appreciate the future. We find that the equilibrium fishing effort when endogenous discount factors are applied is lower than when exogenous discount factors are used. Hence, endogenous discounting can mitigate the persistent problem of overfishing even though such discounting is costly. It should be noted that this result does not hold if the number of fishers is very large, which is not surprising because as the number of fishers approaches infinity, the equilibrium payoff in period 2 approaches zero in both the exogenous and endogenous discounting cases.
#2008-03 Berman, Matthew, Edward J. Gregr, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2008 Dynamic spatial heterogeneity and habitat protection: the cost of marine protected areas in the Gulf of Alaska. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: Academics and fisheries managers are increasingly embracing spatial regulation, using mainly marine protected areas. Spatial heterogeneity challenges the ability of economic analysis to contribute to protected area design, especially where habitat quality may be linked to water column dynamics. We provide in this paper an experimental spatial evaluation approach that both identifies habitat quality and assesses opportunity costs of altered economic activities within protected area boundaries. Our approach accommodates spatial and temporal scales relevant to the underlying dynamic ecological and economic processes by linking them explicitly to a detailed spatial model of the marine physical environment. We apply this approach to estimate opportunity costs of curtailing commercial fisheries in a spatially complex system of protected areas in the Gulf of Alaska. The radical reduction in the spatial scale of analysis of fisheries decisions has direct applications to designing boundaries of marine protected areas and other spatial management decisions.
#2008-02 Christensen, Villy. 2008 Incorporating behavior in ecosystem modeling. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2008-01 Curtis, Janelle, and ACJ Vincent. 2008 Using population viability analysis to evaluate CITES trade-management options for threatened marine fish. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract:
Effective conservation is biologically appropriate and socio-economically acceptable. Yet achieving multiple conservation objectives can be challenging, particularly under high uncertainty. Having agreed to limit seahorse (genus Hippocampus) exports to sustainable levels, signatories to the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) have the option of using a single 10-cm minimum size limit (MSL) as an interim management measure for all of the ≥ 34 species. Although diverse stakeholders supported the recommended MSL, its biological and socio-economic implications were not assessed quantitatively. We used population viability analysis to evaluate the trade-off between conservation threat and long-term cumulative catches, the first time that such an approach has been taken for exploited marine fishes in trade. We used the long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus) as a representative species to compare the performance of MSLs set at 4 biological reference points. Our sensitivity analyses showed that in most scenarios, setting the MSL to just above size at maturity (10 cm in H. guttulatus) would not, per se, prevent exploited populations from becoming listed as Vulnerable. By contrast, the relative risk of decline and extinction were almost halved at a cost of only a 5.6% reduction in long-term catches by increasing the MSL to the size reached after at least one full reproductive season. Based on our analysis, a precautionary increase in the MSL could be compatible with sustaining fishers’ livelihoods and international trade. Our finding of a potentially encouraging win-win trade-off may help bolster the case for CITES trade-management of other valuable marine fishes.

#2007-07 Teh, Lydia CL, Louise SL Teh, Ben Starkhouse, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2007 An overview of socio-economic and ecological perspectives of Fiji's inshore reef fisheries. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: This paper synthesizes existing information on Fiji’s coral reef fisheries. It reviews the socio-economic and ecological context of Fijian reef fisheries, and sets the stage for further investigation into the effects of fishing and the live fish trades on Fiji’s fishing communities, society, and coral reef ecosystems. This review is needed because as of yet there is no comprehensive picture about the state and trends of Fiji’s coral reef fisheries on a national level –assessment of these fisheries is difficult as they have seldom been consistently monitored for long periods. Overseas driven demand for Fiji’s valuable coral reef resources, such as live reef fish, bêche-de-mer, and corals, is likely exacerbating exploitation of already stressed reef ecosystems. This has serious implications for fishing dependent communities, who have a disproportionate economic reliance on reef fisheries. There is currently no comprehensive management plan for Fiji’s inshore reef fisheries, thus bringing up an immediate need to improve our understanding of these fisheries in order that appropriate policies can be determined and implemented. The most important point that emerges from our review is that despite numerousstudies of Fiji’s reef fisheries, the current status of reef-associated fisheries at the national level is still uncertain due to the lack of dependable data on the subsistence fisheries. This in turn leads to uncertainty about how the continuation of fishing, in particular fishing focused on target species for the coral reef resources trade, will affect fishing communities and the ecosystem.
#2007-06 Zeller, Dirk, Shawn Booth, and Daniel Pauly. 2007 Historical catch reconstruction for coral reef– and bottom–fisheries in the U.S. State of Hawaii, 1950 to 2002. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2007-05 Liu, Yajie, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2007 Economic analysis of netcage versus sea-bag production systems for salmon aquaculture in British Columbia.
Abstract: Conventional open netcage systems for salmon aquaculture are under scrutiny and criticism partially because they are believed to generate adverse environmental impacts on other resource users and the surrounding environment. One alternative to preventing or minimizing these impacts is to use enclosed systems. Experience indicates that these enclosed systems are technically feasible and environmentally promising, but they are economically demanding because of high capital and operating costs. Therefore, an economic analysis of open netcage and sea-bag systems for salmon aquaculture was conducted to examine the profitability of salmon aquaculture operations between these two systems. The study shows that netcage systems are more financially profitable than sea-bag systems when environmental costs are either not or only partially considered. Sea-bag systems can be financially profitable only when they produce fish that achieve a price premium. Sensitivity analyses reveal that market price has the most important impact on the profitability of both systems; changes in discount rates, fish density, feed costs, and environmental costs also have major impacts on the profitability of netcage systems; while changes in the length of the growth cycle, survival rate and feed conversion ratio have minor impacts on the profitability of sea-bag systems.
#2007-04 Wabnitz, Colette, Serge Andréfouët, Damaris Torres-Pulliza, Frank E. Müller-Karger, and Phillip A. Kramer. 2007 Regional-scale seagrass habitat mapping in the Wider Caribbean Region using Landsat sensors: applications to conservation and ecology. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: Seagrass meadows cover about 0.05-0.15% of the world’s ocean and are some of the most productive systems on Earth. Direct and indirect human-derived impacts have led to significant seagrass declines worldwide and the alteration of services linked to their biodiversity. Effective conservation and the provision of sustainable recovery goals for ecologically significant species, such as green turtles (Chelonia mydas), are limited by the absence of reliable information on seagrass extent. This is especially true for the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) where many conservation initiatives are under way, but impaired by the lack of accurate baseline habitat maps.To assist with such a fundamental conservation need using high resolution remote sensing data, both environmental and methodological challenges need to be tackled. First, the diversity of environments, the heterogeneity of habitats, and the vast extent of the targeted region mean that local expertise and field data are seldom available. Second, large-scale high-resolution mapping requires several hundred Landsat 5 and 7 images, which poses substantial processing problems. The main goal of this study was to test the feasibility of achieving Landsat-based large-scale seagrass mapping with limited ground-truth data and acceptable accuracies. We used the following combination of methods to map seagrasses throughout the WCR: geomorphological segmentation, contextual editing, and supervised classifications. A total of 40 Landsat scenes (path-row) were processed. Three major classes were derived (“dense seagrass”, “medium-sparse seagrass”, and a generic “other” class). Products’ accuracies were assessed against (i) selected in situ data; (ii) patterns detectable with very high-resolution IKONOS images; and (iii) published habitat maps with documented accuracies. Despite variable overall classification accuracies (45-85%), the resulting thematic maps were deemed acceptable to (i) regionally provide, following their critical evaluation, an adequate baseline for further large-scale conservation programs and research actions; and (ii) regionally re-assess carrying capacity estimates for green turtles. They certainly should represent a drastic improvement relative to current regional databases.
#2007-03 Wood, Louisa, Lucy Fish, Josh Laughren, and Daniel Pauly. 2007 Assessing Progress Towards Global Marine Protection Targets: Shortfalls in Information and Action. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: Current global marine protection targets aim to protect 10-30% of marine habitats within the next 3 to 5 years. However, these targets were adopted without prior assessment of their achievability. Moreover, our ability to monitor progress towards such targets has been constrained by a lack of robust data on marine protected areas (MPAs). Here we present the results of the first explicitly marine-focused, global assessment of MPAs in relation to three global marine protection targets. We show that approximately 2.2 million km2, equivalent to 0.6% of the world’s oceans and 1.5% of the total marine area under national jurisdiction, are currently protected. Only 0.08% of the world’s oceans, and 0.2% of the total marine area under national jurisdiction is ‘no-take’. The global distribution of MPAs is both uneven and unrepresentative at multiple scales, and only half of the world’s MPAs may be viewed as part of a coherent ‘network’. Over the last two decades, the spatial extent of marine area protected globally has grown at an annual growth rate of 5.2%. At this rate, even the most modest target is unlikely to be met for at least several decades, rather than within the coming decade. To some extent, these results validate concerns expressed over the relevance and utility of broad conservation targets. However, given the low level of protection currently afforded marine ecosystems, a more immediate global concern is a rapid increase in MPA coverage. In this case, the process of comparing targets to their expected achievement dates may help to mobilise support for the policy shifts and increased resources needed to improve the current level of marine protection.
#2007-02 Jacquet, Jennifer, and Dirk Zeller. 2007 National Conflict and Fisheries: Reconstructing Marine Fisheries Catches for Mozambique, 1950-2004. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: Mozambique is one of the poorest countries in the world; however, it is rich in marine resources. This study gives an overview of Mozambique’s marine fishing history from the colonial period to the present, including how fishing was affected by the country’s 16-year civil war. Since the 1950s, when the compilation of global fisheries data by FAO began, Mozambique has reported primarily industrial catches and has vastly under-reported the nation’s small-scale fishing sector due to lack of resources and civil strife. This study tentatively reconstructs small-scale catches, industrial catches, and discards. In total, small-scale catches may account for an average of 87% of landed between 15,000 and 140,000 tonnes per year, which is 5.5 times greater than the statistics reported by FAO based on country reports. Though there is a large degree of uncertainty with this work, the assumptions made herein are better than the alternative, i.e., that the small-scale sector has no landings.
#2007-01 Walters, Carl J., Ussif Rashid Sumaila, and SJD Martell. 2007 Industry-Funded License Reduction as a Business Investment Strategy. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
Abstract: For many fisheries, reductions in fishing effort would likely result in higher long-term catches and improved incomes per fisher. But fishing licenses are typically treated as though they were property rights, implying potentially high costs for public buyback programs. Instead of waiting for the public to pay for such buybacks, it can make good business sense for license holders to ask the public only for protection against new licenses, and to proceed under this protection to finance the buyback themselves. The short-run costs of this investment may be outweighed by the long term gains in annual incomes and in values of licenses when individual fishermen retire.

#2006-23 Libralato, Simone, Marta Coll, Sergi Tudela, Isabel Palomera, and Fabio Pranovi. 2006 Bayesian Estimation of Technical Efficiency in the Pacific Hake Fishery. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2006-22 Tomberlin, David, Xavier Irz, and Garth Holloway. 2006. Quantifying Effects of Fishing on Marine Trophic Webs. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2006-20 Teh, Louise SL, Dirk Zeller, Annadel Cabanban, Lydia CL Teh, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2006. Seasonality and Historic Trends in the Reef Fisheries of Pulau Banggi, Sabah, Malaysia. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2006-19 Khan, Ahmed S.. 2006. Sustainability Challenges in the Geoduck Clam Fishery of British Columbia: Policy Perspectives. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2006-18 Teh, Louise SL, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2006. Diets of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Southeast Alaska, 1993-1999. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2006-17 Rosen, DAS, Arliss Winship, and Lisa A. Hoopes. 2006. Thermal and digestive constraints to foraging behavior in marine mammals. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2006-16 Forrest, Robyn E., and Tony J. Pitcher. 2006. Misguided claims of overfishing in New South Wales: comments on "Empty Oceans Empty Nets, an evaluation of NSW fisheries catch statistics from 1940 to 2000". Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2006-15 Rosen, DAS, and Saeko Kumagai. 2006. Seasonal differences of changes in hormone levels in response to short-term restricted diet in Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2006-14 Trites, Andrew W., Volker Bernt Deecke, Edward J. Gregr, John KB Ford, and Peter F. Olesiuk. 2006. Killer whales, whaling and sequential megafaunal collapse in the North Pacific: a comparative analysis of the dynamics of marine mammals in Alaska and British Columbia following commercial whaling. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2006-13 Sumaila, Ussif Rashid, John Paul Volpe, and Yajie Liu. 2006. Potential economic benefits from sablefish farming in British Columbia. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2006-12 Munro, Gordon R. 2006. International Allocation Issues and the High Seas: An Economist's Perspective. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2006-11 Shchegoleva, Liudmila. 2006. Comparative Studies on Fisheries Management Strategies in Canada and the United States. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2006-10 Samoilys, Melita A., Keith M. Martin-Smith, Brian G. Giles, Brian Cabrera, Jonathan A. Anticamara, Erwin O. Brunio, and ACJ Vincent. 2006. Fish responses over seven years in five coral reef reserves in the central Philippines. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2006-09 Walters, Carl J., and SJD Martell. 2006. Experimental policies for rebuilding depleted stocks. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2006-08 Clark, Colin, Gordon R. Munro, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2006. Buyback, subsidies, the time consistency problem and the ITQ alternative. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2006-07 Gregr, Edward J., and Karin M. Bodtker. 2006. Adaptive classification of marine ecosystems: identifying biologically meaningful regions in the marine environment. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2006-06 Perry, Ian R., and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2006. Marine ecosystem variability and human community responses: the example of Ghana, West Africa. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2006-05 Sumaila, Ussif Rashid, and Carl J. Walters. 2006. Making future generations count: Comment on “Remembering the future". Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2006-04 Sumaila, Ussif Rashid, and Lisa Suatoni. 2006. Economic Benefits of Rebuilding U.S. Ocean Fish Populations. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2006-03 Alder, Jackie, S. Hopkins, William WL Cheung, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2006. Valuing US Marine Habitats: Fantasy or Fact?. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2006-02 Haggan, Nigel, Nancy Turner, Jennifer Carpenter, James T. Jones, Quentin Mackie, and Charles R. Menzies 2006. 12,000+ years of change: Linking traditional and modern ecosystem science in the Pacific Northwest. Fisheries Centre Working Paper
#2006-01 Tesfamichael, Dawit, and Tony J. Pitcher. 2006. Estimating the Unreported Catch of Eritrean Red Sea Fisheries. Fisheries Centre Working Paper

#2005-07 Pauly, Daniel, Shawn Booth, Villy Christensen, William WL Cheung, Chris Close, A. Kitchingman, Maria Lourdes D. Palomares, Reg Watson, and Dirk Zeller. 2005. On the Exploitation of Elasmobranchs, with Emphasis on Cowtail Stingray Pastinachus sephen (Family Dasyatidae). Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver
#2005-06 Berman, Matthew, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2005. Discounting, amenity values and marine ecosystem restoration. Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver
Abstract: Colin Clark, during his wrap-up of the 2005 Biennial Forum of North American Fisheries Economists that took place at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver Canada, challenged participants regarding discounting as a barrier to demonstrating the economic viability of ecosystem restoration. Through this contribution, we hope to initiate a conversation among marine resource economists on the role of discounting on ecosystem restoration and the long-term sustainable management of marine resources. We relate the problem of discounting benefits of ecosystem restoration to that of valuing the amenities that restored ecosystems could produce, and suggest how empirical research might contribute to the debate over the proper discount rate to apply in valuing natural and ecosystem resources.
#2005-05 Zeller, Dirk, Shawn Booth, and Daniel Pauly. 2005. Fisheries Contributions to GDP: Underestimating Small-scale Fisheries in the Pacific. Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver
#2005-04 Vincent, ACJ, Dale A. Marsden, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2005. Possible Contributions of Globalization in Creating and Addressing Seahorse Conservation Problems. Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver
#2005-03 Palomares, Maria Lourdes D., Elizabeth Mohammed, and Daniel Pauly. 2005. European Expeditions as a Source of Historic Abundance Data on Marine Organisms. Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver
Abstract: The abundance of marine organisms reported during the great European oceanographic expeditions can be a useful tool for assessing changes in marine biodiversity. Qualitative information from narratives of these early expeditions can be analyzed quantitatively and used to plot trends of observed abundances at a specific locality over time. This paper focuses on 9 expeditions and 7 voyages to the Falkland Islands. Accounts of organisms occurring in the Falkland Islands were assembled from available expedition/voyage reports covering the period between the late 1500s to the early 1920s.
Each observation or ‘anecdote’ in these reports (usually a sentence or paragraph) was ranked according to the perceived abundance of a group of species (e.g., marine mammals, seabirds, fishes, etc.) using a 5-level scale (i.e., extremely abundant; abundant; very common; common; rare; absent). The results indicate that, in general, the most ‘visible’ or those deemed useful to humans (marine mammals, seabirds and large fishes), were the subject of half of all anecdotes assembled for marine organisms observed. For these groups, the relative number of ‘extremely abundant’ and ‘abundant’ observations decreased, while the relative number of ‘rare’ and ‘absent’ observations increased during the 300-year time period investigated. Inferences are drawn about the impact of European settlers (resource extraction) on other marine biota of the islands.
#2005-02 Sumaila, Ussif Rashid, Jackie Alder, and Keith M. Martin-Smith. 2005. Global Scope and Economics of Illegal Fishing. Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver
#2005-01 Sumaila, Ussif Rashid, Dale A. Marsden, Reg Watson, and Daniel Pauly. 2005. Global Ex-vessel Fish Price Database: Construction, Spatial and Temporal Applications. Fisheries Centre Working Paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver